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# Вопросы и ответы на Seagull CES CBT тест по теме Incident Investigation

Добро пожаловать на страницу, где вы можете найти ответы на CBT тест (Computer Based Test), который еще называют Бесплатные вопросы и ответы на CES тесты для моряковCES (Crew Evaluation System) онлайн по теме «Incident Investigation» (Расследование Причин Аварий на Море). Данная страница поможет вам, как морскому специалисту улучшить свои знания с помощью открытой информации, где размещены как вопросы, так и ответы теста. Основанные на доказательных эмпирических данных и опыте морских специалистов, показательные и эффективные объединенные материалы CES/CBT тестов используются на практике в предметных областях.

Разработанные для оценки базовых знаний моряков CES & CBT тесты компании Seagull (после ребрендинга OTG) представляют собой онлайновый инструмент оценки, используемый для выявления потребностей в профессиональной подготовке, специфичных для областей знаний, определенных в ПДНВ, ответы на которые вы найдете ниже.

В процессе отбора и набора персонала, а также для измерения уровня знаний существующих офицеров и экипажа, CES тест хорошо показал себя по всем параметрам. Ocean Technologies Group использовали для создания вопросов обширные темы, которые включают:

• Управление кризисными ситуациями и скоплением людей;
• Интегрированная навигационная система;
• Управление балластными водами;
• Обработка и укладка грузов;
• Управление эксплуатацией судна и безопасностью;
• Морская инженерия;
• Техническое обслуживание и ремонт, и многие другие темы.

Данная страница содержит ответы Seagull CES по теме «Расследование Причин Аварий на Море», собранные из CBT тестового симулятора для помощи во время проверки компетентности команды судна, так и для личного тестирования знаний.

Тема «Расследование Причин Аварий на Море» включает в себя теоретическую и практическую информацию, знание которой напрямую показывает профессиональность работника, занимающего соответствующую должность на борту судна. Знания, позволяющие проводить расследование морской аварии или инцидента в открытом или закрытом порядке, включая сбор и анализ информации, составление выводов, в том числе выявления обстоятельств и определения причин и факторов, которые привели к аварийной ситуации, а так же подготовку рекомендации по безопасности.

Crew Evaluation System Test ответы на этой странице по теме «Incident Investigation» содержит 85 вопросов и ответы на них, которые можно использовать в случае с затруднениями в любом вопросе во время прохождения проверки на профессиональную компетентность.

Воспользуйтесь поиском, чтобы найти интересующий вас вопрос. Достаточно ввести одно слово или часть его, чтобы фильтр заработал.

Количество отображаемых вопросов: 85.

Правильные ответы отмечены знаком .

A Junior Engineer is injured during the replacement of a main engine cylinder liner. An investigator, examining the period immediately before the accident, may look for two distinct types of actions (referred to in this training program). What are they?
Omission.
Commission.
Prevention.
Solution.
Acts and practises identified in an incident are compared against a “standard”. What is that standard?
The applicable.
The relevant maintenance schedule.
The appropriate start-up routine.
The required shutdown method.
An accident is frequently caused by contact with which two of the following?
A source of energy.
A substance above the threshold limit of the body concerned.
A material within the threshold limit of the body concerned.
A body from which all energy has been expended.
An investigator arrives on board to conduct an inquiry into an incident involving some damaged containers, several of which have collapsed and fallen forward onto the back of the forecastle deck. Which of the following will he initially seek to identify?
The transfer of energy.
Where the biggest impact has taken place.
How the greatest damage was caused.
The sequence of events leading to the incident.
An investigator is confronted by the results of an accident in which a stack of wire ropes has fallen over and crushed some boxed goods in a cargo hold. Which of the following will he initially seek to identify?
The transfer of energy.
Where the biggest impact has taken place.
How the greatest damage was caused.
The sequence of events leading to the incident.
As described in this training program, an accident is generally caused by contact with which two of the following?
A source of energy.
A substance above the threshold limit of the body concerned.
A body within which all energy has been contained during an impact.
A body capable of generating a disproportionately high level of energy.
As indicated in this training program, what is the most valuable outcome of an incident investigation?
The establishment of control to the extent that it prevents the repeat of a similar incident in the future.
A good report that will impress an auditor.
The statistics it produces.
That the Company can demonstrate that it investigates incidents in compliance with the ISM Code and other legislation.
Basic causes are generally divided into which two of the following categories?
Personal factors.
Job factors.
Substandard conditions.
Fundamental causes.
Following an accident on board, there is an enquiry from a lawyer on the ship’s satellite telephone, whilst at anchor awaiting port entry. Who should the Duty Officer direct the call to?
The Master.
The Ship’s Safety Officer.
The Agent.
The Ship’s Security Officer.
Following an accident, the situation may develop in one of two ways. Which are they?
It may continue to deteriorate.
It may be recovered.
It may reduce in significance to the point at which the actual accident may be ignored.
It doesn’t matter. Nobody is concerned with what happens after an accident.
For the purposes of communications relating to an incident, who is the nominated representative of the Owner of the vessel?
The Master.
The Ship’s Safety Officer.
The boarding agent.
The Ship’s Security Officer.
Identify the United Nations Convention and the major IMO Convention which require Flag States to investigate and report marine casualties and pollution incidents:
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UCLOS).
The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) 1974.
MARPOL 1974.
The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code.
The United Nations Convention on Environmental Pollution (UNCEP).
If a chain is used to illustrate the sequence of events leading up to and surrounding an accident, at what point is the accident itself considered to take place?
At the first link, corresponding to the basic cause.
At the final link, corresponding to the recovery or further deterioration phase in the sequence.
If accidents are investigated and the information obtained is constructively fed back into the system, which of the following might reasonably be anticipated?
A reduction, or even elimination of such accidents in the future.
An increased likelihood of the repetition of such accidents in the future.
A reduction in personal injuries, matched by a corresponding increase in incidents involving material damage.
A more efficient system will be developed for the purposes of allocating blame.
If accidents are not investigated and the causes addressed, which of the following might reasonably be expected to happen in the future?
Further similar accidents, incidents and near-misses will occur.
Personal injuries will decrease, but material damage will continue.
Those responsible will be more easily identified.
The crew will become practiced at hiding accidents and incidents from the company.
If an officer is instructed to investigate an incident which involved a broken wire on a mooring winch and he is supporting his inquiry with photographs, how should he try to photograph the wire?
In place, still on the winch drum.
In the forecastle store, having been removed from the winch drum.
Ashore, having been removed from the vessel.
He should not take photographs of the broken wire.
If control is assessed as inadequate, which two of the following factors may be representative of inadequate performance standards?
They are not specific enough.
They are assessed as not high or demanding enough.
The standards state exactly what is required.
There are too few system activities found.
Immediate causes are generally divided into which two of the following categories?
Substandard acts.
Substandard conditions.
Job factors.
Underlying factors.
In relation to the accident timeline, there are commonly three periods of opportunity to apply or increase control. Which of the following are they?
Pre-contact.
Contact.
Post-contact.
Post-recovery.
In respect of incident investigation, complacency, incompetence, negligence, recklessness and lack of communication are all examples of what?
Fallability.
Pre-existing management failure.
Infallibility.
In terms of investigation, which of the following may be considered as the results or effects of an accident?
The loss experienced at the end of a sequence of events.
The elements in a sequence of events prior to the point of contact.
Infallibility.
In the critical period, immediately before an accident happens, which two distinct types of actions can normally be observed from those directly involved?
Omission.
Commission.
Remission.
Elimination.
Inadequate compliance is normally identified by which two of the following circumstances?
Evidence that there was knowledge of a declared standard and that it was wilfully disregarded.
Evidence that there was inadequate knowledge or understanding of a standard which resulted in it not being observed.
Proof that the injured party had undergone a training course.
The assumption that personnel involved in an incident have not listened to instructions.
Safety investigators often investigate and analyse only a selective “percentage” of incidents and accidents. What percentage does this training module suggest is generally used?
20 %.
50 %.
1 in 10.
1 in 100.
The Chief Officer has been appointed to investigate an incident in the engine room workshop. He is planning to interview a number of crewmembers. Which two of the following should he do, prior to commencing the interviews? Select all applicable answers:
Identify evidence still to be secured.
Work out beforehead who is lying and how to trap them in the interview.
Compile questions2 which will deliver evidence to support his ideas of what happened.
The Superintendent is going on board to conduct an investigation into an accident in which a crewmember was seriously injured during the stowage of an accommodation ladder. Which four of the following individuals or groups should he particularly try to interview?
The person in charge of the operation at the time of the accident.
Any eye witnesses.
Any person who can contribute to the understanding of the events leading up to, and the prevailing conditions at the time of, the accident.
Any person who can provide additional evidence, relevant to the investigation.
All crewmembers.
A representative from the manufacturer of the accommodation ladder.
The following describe entries found in a ship’s logbook. Which three may be an indication that the entries have been added or changed at a later stage?
A missing page as indicated by a break in the numerical sequence.
“Liquid paper” (Tipex) has been used.
An entry made by someone who was not on watch at the time.
An entry found to have been made by a Junior Officer.
The following describe entries found in a ship’s logbook. Which three may be an indication that the entries have been added or changed at a later stage?
A missing page as indicated by a break in the numerical sequence.
“Liquid paper” (Tipex) has been used.
An entry made by someone who was not on watch at the time.
An entry found to have been made by a Junior Officer.
The maximum safe working load of a crane has been exceeded. When the operator attempted the lift, the retaining bolts at the foot of the crane mounting sheared and the crane toppled over. Which three of the following may be considered as evidence of “fallibility” in this situation?
Incompetence.
Negligence.
Lack of monitoring.
The ship’s Safety Officer is conducting an on-board investigation into a minor incident involving a fall on a lifeboat access platform. A seaman who was working nearby at the time is being interviewed and is having difficulty in remembering some of the details. Which two techniques might the Safety Officer use to help him remember?
He might talk through the incident with the seaman.
He might work through a list of potentially relevant items, asking the seaman to include or reject them.
He should get firm with the seaman and tell him how important it is that he remembers.
He should ask the seaman to say anything, even if he is not absolutely sure of the facts, so that he can include some testimony from him in the investigation report.
The study conducted by the North of England P&I Club used the example of a man and a ladder alongside the accident pyramid to further illustrate their conclusions. What relationship did this further suggest?
That the severity of accidents depends on the degree of hazard.
That the severity of accidents and incidents bears no relation to the prevailing exposure to risk.
That the statistics are better illustrated by a rectangular shape than a pyramid.
That such studies are only of value when physical injury is involved.
There has been an incident on board the vessel, with some casualties and pollution. A local newspaper reporter approaches the seaman on duty at the gangway and asks him to explain what happened. He offers the man 50 \$ for his help. How should the seaman be trained to react to such an approach?
He should not enter into any discussion relating to the incident. He should refuse admission to the reporter.
He should accept the money and politely answer the reporter’s questions2.
He should call the Bosun on his radio and ask him to come and talk with the reporter.
He should do his best to answer the reporter’s questions2, but ensure that the man’s name and who he works for is properly recorded in the gangway log.
What are the three common reasons for lack of control?
Excessive paperwork.
What broad rule is often referred to by safety investigators when explaining the selective investigation of reported incidents?
The 80/20 rule.
The 20/20 rule.
Bernhard’s principle of Selective Accident Investigation.
The Accident Pyramid.
What connection is there between the sinking of the s. s. “Titanic” in 1912 and a method commonly used to illustrate the relationship between reported and unreported accidents and incidents?
The “Titanic” was sunk when she struck an iceberg and an iceberg is commonly used to illustrate how the large numbers of unreported incidents go “unseen”.
The White Star Line, owners of the “Titanic” conducted and published the findings of the first major study into accidents and incidents involving loss of life at sea.
The decks of the “Titanic” and the numbers of available life-saving appliances respectively placed on them are often illustrated in pyramid form.
The ratio between the numbers of survivors and those lost when the “Titanic” sank are frequently used as a benchmark in studies into modern-day marine casualties.
What is it that starts the process of cause and effect and ultimately results in the “loss” evidenced in the incident?
Lack of control.
Lack of training.
Improper risk assessment.
Intentional abuse.
What kind of culture do we say exists where people look no further than “human error”?
A blame culture.
A corrective culture.
A teamwork culture.
A safety management culture.
What principal factor may indicate that safety studies such as those discussed in this chapter are not necessarily representative of true life?
They are based only on those accidents and incidents which are reported.
The companies and organizations selected for inclusion in such studies are chosen so that a particular set of trends can be illustrated.
The exact details of the accidents and incidents used to compile the statistics used in such studies are controlled by the data protection act and cannot therefore be verified as accurate and complete.
Most studies are conducted in the US and do not reflect practices in the rest of the world.
When an accident is investigated, which of the following will be considered as its results or effects?
The loss experienced at the end of a sequence of events.
The phases in an accident after the build-up period.
Serious physical injury, but not damage to property.
Breakage or damage to property or the environment, but not involving physical injury.
When an accident occurs on board that may have an effect on the safety of the crew and on the environment, an investigator will afterwards examine the way the situation developed afterwards. In which two ways is it generally understood that a situation will go?
It may continue to deteriorate.
It may be recovered.
It will consider to have no significant impact on the environment.
The investigation will focus on the facts at the time; subsequent risk to the safety of the crew or the environment are not considered relevant to the investigation.
When presenting findings and recommendations in a report for on board use, which of the following will help to increase understanding and interest?
Avoid jargon and keep it simple.
Avoid using the ship’s name.
Print the report in large type.
Print plenty of copies of the report and post them all over the ship.
When we refer to a “blame culture”, what kind of culture do we consider typically exists?
One, where people look no further than “human error”.
One, where investigators seek to blame as many people as possible.
One, which seeks to avoid apportioning any degree of blame.
One in which the level of responsibility of each person involved in an incident is allocated as a percentage.
Which five of the following general categories are examples of contact controls?
Substitution.
Reduction.
Barriers.
Modification.
Protection.
Formulation of policies and writing of procedures.
Which five of the following may be categorized under the general factor described as “lack of skill”?
Infrequent performance.
Lack of coaching.
Which four of the following are amongst the “golden rules” of interviewing?
Don’t do all the talking.
Put the witness at ease.
Be patient.
Remain impartial.
Start every interview with a very specific question.
Which four of the following are examples of automatically recorded data?
Alarm logs.
Engine movement print-outs.
Course recorded charts.
Online ullage report.
Master’s Night Orders.
Passage Plans.
Which four of the following are examples of substandard practises?
Operating equipment without authority.
Overriding or bypassing safety devices.
Operating at an improper or unsafe speed.
Failure to use personal protective equipment.
Exposure to hazardous environment – dust, fumes, smoke, vapours.
Which four of the following are possible consequences of accidents, incidents and near-misses?
Personal injury.
Material damage.
Lost time.
Enhanced reputation.
Which guidelines, produced by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum in 1997, are intended to promote, among tanker operators, an increased understanding and awareness of personnel safety through the efficient and accurate reporting and recording of accidents?
The Marine Injury Reporting Guidelines.
The SIRE Programm.
The ISM Code.
The International Marine Personal Safety Guide.
Which incident is credited with first bringing about a major focus on what is called the “human element” in marine disasters?
The sinking of the “Herald of Free Enterprise”.
The sinking of the “Titanic”.
The collision between the “Norwegian Dream” and the “Ever Decent”.
The grounding of the “Torry Canyon”.
Which maritime Code requires shipping companies to provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment, establish safeguards against all identified risks and to continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard ships, including preparing for emergencies related both to safety and environmental protection?
The International Safety Management (ISM) Code.
The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).
The International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).
Which of the following are examples of “hidden” costs? Select all applicable answers:
Lost time.
Reduced capacity.
Drop in performance.
Which of the following are examples of “hidden” costs? Select all applicable answers:
Recovery costs.
Reduced profits.
Lost time.
Which of the following are possible consequences of accidents, incidents and near-misses? Select all applicable answers:
Personal injury.
Material damage.
Lost time.
Costs in putting things right.
Which of the following are possible consequences of accidents, incidents and near-misses? Select all applicable answers:
Loss of reputation.
Low morale and poor attitude amongst the workforce.
Which of the following best describes the form that the narrative section of an Incident Investigation Report should follow?
A simple, orderly description of the events leading up to the accident, incident or near miss, the circumstances of the accident, incident or near miss itself, the consequences and the post-incident actions, written in a neutral way, without opinion or judgement.
A random description of the events preceding an incident, or near miss and the corrective actions necessary to prevent a recurrence, written in a neutral way, but including the investigator’s summary assessment.
A complex and detailed account of the accident, incident or near miss only reflecting, so far as possible, the investigator’s understanding of the circumstances and including recommendations for the attention of management.
Which of the following best explains the purpose of an investigation into an accident, incident or near miss on board ship?
The establishment of facts and the determination of corrective action, aimed at the prevention of a recurrence of the incident. It is not to determine the allocation of blame.
Primarily the allocation of blame, but also the identification of relevant contributory factors. It may suggest corrective action.
The drawing up of corrective action, including disciplinary procedures where appropriate. Applicable contributory factors may not necessarily be identified.
The completion of the necessary forms, so that an incident is on record and an auditor can see that a system for selectively documenting certain incidents exists.
Which of the following factors may be seen as evidence of a failing loss control element in a system? Select all applicable answers:
Too few system activities.
Irrelevant activities present.
Inaccurate and out-of-date activities.
Incomplete activities.
Improperly arranged activities.
Which of the following is the definition of an “impartial” witness, within the context of this program?
One who has no personal interest and nothing to gain, or lose.
One with a personal interest in the outcome of the inquiry.
One with whom there is a language-based communication problem.
One who has a problem with authority and feels threatened by the interview.
Which of the following is the definition of “circumstantial evidence”, as understood by this module?
Something that may reasonably be said to be relevant to an incident.
Something found in physical objects, which cannot often be disputed.
Information obtained throught a third party.
Accounts told by witnesses.
Which of the following is the definition of “evidence”, as described in this training program?
Something that demonstrates proof.
Something that demostrates guilt.
Information collected for a report.
The opinions of witnesses interviewed during an investigation.
Which of the following may be categorized under inadequate tools?
Lack of experience.
Lack of incentives.
Excessive frustration.
Which of the following may be categorized under lack of knowledge?
Lack of experience.
Lack of incentives.
Excessive frustration.
Which of the following may be considered as evidence of “fallibility” in a situation that may have led to an accident? Select all applicable answers:
Complacency.
Incompetence.
Recklessness.
Negligence.
Which of the following may be considered as evidence of “fallibility” in a situation that may have led to an accident? Select all applicable answers:
Negligence.
Lack of monitoring.
Lack of communication.
Ongoing management failure.
Which of the following safety management objectives are required from a shipping company by the ISM Code? Select all applicable answers:
To provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment.
To establish safeguards against all identified risks.
To continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard ships, including preparing for emergencies related both to safety and environmental protection.
Which of the following will usually be missing in a near-miss investigation?
Evidence of loss.
The presence of adequate alarm systems.
Supervision by a senior officer.
Substandard conditions.
Which piece of international legislation directly resulted from the sinking of the “Herald of Free Enterprise”?
The International Safety Management (ISM) Code.
The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).
The International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL).
Which safety initiative, launched by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum in 1993, takes the form of a risk-assessment tool for charterers, ship operators, terminal operators and government bodies and includes verifying if an accident and incident investigation policy exists within a company?
The SIRE Programm.
The IPPA Initiative.
The International Risk Assessment Guide for Ship and Terminal Operators.
The Ship Operator Voluntary Audit Scheme.
Which three of the following are common interview techniques, as explained in this program?
Free recall.
Conversational approach.
Trick questions2.
Numerical assessment.
Which three of the following areexamples of abnormal behaviour?
Entering a ballast tank for which there is no gas-free test certificate.
Allowing a colleague to walk along a poorly-lit engine room alleyway, towards an area where the gratings have been lifted and no protective barriers have been erected, without issuing a warning.
Commercing the overhaul of a pump, without first checking that it has been properly isolated Operating a workshop lathe without using eye protection.
Wearing non-slip footwear in the galley.
Which three of the following are examples of possible “hidden” costs resulting from an accident or incident?
Lost time.
Reduced capacity.
Material damage.
Pollution.
Injuries.
Which three of the following are examples of post-contact controls?
Emergency evacuation plans.
First Aid.
Search and Rescue operations.
Preparation of fire-fighting equipment for possible use.
Creation of a Contingency Plan.
Briefing of the ship’s crew prior to the operation.
Which three of the following are examples of transfer of energy by contact?
Crane hook striking seafarer on the back of the head.
Seafarer falling down companionway ladder and landing on deck below.
Steward entering walk-in refrigerator in rough weather, hit by swinging door.
Seafarer suffering from seasickness.
Which three of the following are examples of “latent factors” that may be found to contribute to an accident?
Design.
Incorrect installation.
Faulty maintenance.
Unsafe acts.
Substandard practises.
Updated procedures.
Which three of the following may be an indication that entries in an engine-room log-book have been added, or amended, at a later stage?
An entry between others in a different handwriting style.
An entry between others using a different pen.
An entry made by someone who was not on watch at the time.
An entry found to have been made by the Chief Engineer.
Which three of the following may be said to be the results of good control measures?
The effects of energy transfer may be prevented, altered or absorbed.
Harm may be minimized.
Damage may be eliminated or minimized.
Probably less personnel will be needed and production costs will be lower.
The transfer of energy will be able to be more accurately measured.
Which two of the following are examples of abnormal behaviour?
Commencing the overhaul of a ballast valve, without first checking that it has been properly isolated and the appropriate warning notices put in place in the control room.
Operating a manifold crane on which no training and familiarization has been delivered.
Wearing footwear with steel-toecaps during storing.
Carrying out a risk assessment and completing a “Permit to work aloft” form before repairing a floodlight on the front of the accommodation.
Which two of the following are examples of substandard conditions?
Congested or restricted work area.
Working under the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Operating equipment at an improper or unsafe speed.
Which two of the following are examples of substandard practises?
Overriding or bypassing safety devices.
Failure to use personal protective equipment.
Missing guards or barriers.
Exposure to excessive high or low temperatures.
Which two of the following are examples of transfer of energy by contact?
Damage to spare parts in storage cabinet sustained when work bench broke loose in the electrician’s workshop during heavy weather.
Steward opens locker door and is hit by falling crockery as ship rolls.
Wear and tear on the shaft of a sledge hammer, resulting in the head working loose.
Failure of electrical control panel resulting in bilge pump not starting.
Which two of the following factors may be evidence of a failing loss control element in a Safety Management System?
There are too few system activities.
Innacurate and out-of-date activities are observed.
Performance standards are specifically defined.
Training standards are too high and demanding.
Which two of the following will commonly be amongst an investigator’s aims when planning a series of interviews as part of the inquiry procedure?
To establish and confirm the sequence of events.
To understand how the witness was involved in the incident.
To determine if the witness is to blame for the incident.
To determine if the witnesses have “arranged a story” between them.
Within the context of this training module, which of the following is the definition of a “near-miss”?
An unintended or unwanted event, or uncontrolled development in the course of an operation, that almost resulted in unintended harm or damage, or potential for legal action, or is not consistent with acceptable standards.
An intended or desired event, or controlled sequence of events, in the course of an operation, that was not accounted for in the applicable risk assessment.
An occurence in which personnel are found to have been operating in compliance with the International Safety Management Code.
An operation, or phase in an operation, in which personnel, the ship, its equipment or cargo, or the environment, almost, but not quite, comply with all applicable regulations and procedures.
Within the context of this training module, which of the following is the definition of a “accident”?
An unforeseen event that has resulted in unintended harm or damage.
A planned event that has resulted in deliberate damage.
An uncontrolled development in the course of an operation which has resulted in unintended harm or damage, or the potential for legal action, or is not consistent with acceptable standards.
A situation where personnel have been injured as a result of not operating in compliance with the Safety Management System.
Within the context of this training module, which of the following is the definition of a “incident”?
An uncontrolled development in the course of an operation which has resulted in unintended harm or damage, or the potential for legal action, is not consistent with acceptable standards.
An unforeseen event that has resulted in unintended harm or damage.
A planned event that has resulted in deliberate damage.
A situation where personnel have been injured as a result of failure to comply with the operating requirements of the company’s Safety Management System.
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Июль, 19, 2022 73 0
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Формула не набрана
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