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Crew Evaluation Test online for seamans about Marine Ecology, Environmental Awareness

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Welcome to the website where you can pass online the CES CBT CD-0277 test on the subject «Marine Environmental Awareness, Environmental Challenges». Practice like this will help you as a marine specialist improve your knowledge with the help of online studying and appraisal practice. CES based on practical information and marine specialists experience.

CES tests developed for evaluating seaman basic knowledge by Seagull Company (rebranded as «OTG»), is an evaluating online-tool, used for revealing any professional preparation needed in specific fields of knowledge, defined by STCW.

CES tests have proven themselves as good tools for the selection and recruitment process, as well as advancing the level of knowledge of the current officers and crew. Ocean Technologies Group use various subjects for question creation, which includes:

  • Crowd and Crisis Management;
  • Integrated Navigation System (INS);
  • Ballast water management;
  • Handling and Stowage;
  • Vessel operation management and safety;
  • Marine engineering;
  • Maintenance and repair, etc.

Current test contains Seagull CES questions on the subject «Marine Environmental Awareness, Environmental Challenges». Those questions can be used for competence verification specialist capable of preventing accidental situations related with transporting safety, or also for self-examination.

«Marine Environmental Awareness» subject includes theoretical and practical information about advanced training for work on any type of vessel. Knowledge of this information directly shows employee’s competence who holds a relevant post on a vessel. Understanding marine ecology and the surrounding environment is of paramount importance for preserving the balance in natural ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. This subject enables effective tackling of issues such as ocean pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change, which have global implications affecting all of us. Knowledge of the marine environment also contributes to the development of sustainable solutions for fisheries, tourism, and other ocean-dependent industries, ensuring long-term prosperity and well-being for humanity. Lastly, awareness of the significance and vulnerability of the oceans fosters responsible decision-making at both individual and collective levels, aimed at conserving and enhancing the marine environment.

On this site Crew Evaluation System Test on the subject «Marine Environmental Awareness, Environmental Challenges» contains 84 questions you need to answer with no possibility to go back to previous question. Therefore, we recommend carefully reading each question and making decision with no hurry. In case you have some difficulty answering, you have also possibility to request a hint.

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According to the BWM Convention, Ballast Water Exchange will be phased out and replaced by Ballast Water Treatment; TWO reasons for this include:
Treatment is more effective.
Exchange can be dangerous for the ship’s crew.
Treatment is less work for the ship’s crew.
Treatment is cheaper.
Next question
Which statement about the effects of sewage is true?
Discharge of sewage in coastal areas may cause oxygen deficiency.
Sewage may bioaccumulate.
Sewage does not break down in the marine environment.
Sewage causes over fertilization in open ocean areas.
Show results
According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), working at a ship recycling facility where “beaching” takes place is one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. Which THREE statements below best explain why?
Because protective clothing is seldom provided.
Because workers lack proper training.
Because heavy machinery is often available.
Because at the same time ships are grounded, people are walking around on the beach.
Next question
According to this module, which THREE negative effects for humans were caused by mercury poisoning in the Minamata Bay case study:
Dementia.
Brain damage.
Mentally disabled babies.
Blindness.
Next question
Approximately how long does it take for a plastic bottle to break down in the marine environment?
450 years.
50 years.
150 years.
900 years.
Next question
By 2020 the Global Sulphur Cap will be tightened to:
0,5 %.
2,0 %.
1,0 %.
0,1 %.
Next question
In 2004, global economic losses caused by harmful invasive species were estimated to be:
7 billion euro’s per year.
500 million euro’s per year.
1 billion euro’s per year.
3 billion euro’s per year.
Next question
List TWO pollutants from a ship that are NOT formed in the engine:
HCFCs.
TBT.
SOx.
PM.
Next question
Marine invasive species may cause ecological damage in many ways. Which THREE of the following statements are true?
Invasive species may eat native species.
Invasive species may change food webs.
Invasive species may decrease biodiversity.
Invasive species may increase biodiversity.
Next question
ONE of the processes that remove chemicals permanently from the environment is called:
Biodegradation.
Evaporation.
Dissolution.
Bioaccumulation.
Next question
Of the four chemical categories X, Y, Z, and OS in MARPOL Annex II which ONE category is the most dangerous?
X.
Y.
Z.
OS.
Next question
Select ONE correct option that correctly describes problems caused by carbon dioxide emissions:
Climate change.
Ozone depletion.
Acidification of freshwater lakes.
Health problems – smog.
Next question
Select ONE correct option that describes a problem caused by Particulate Matter (PM) in air emissions:
Health problems.
Ozone depletion.
Acidification.
Oil pollution.
Next question
Select ONE option that best describes an immediate or short term ecological effect of oil spills:
Oil coated wildlife, death of seabirds.
Cancers in fish, oil coated wildlife.
Cancers in fish, smothered coastlines.
Breeding problems for marine mammals, death of seabirds.
Next question
Select ONE option that best identifies human health effects caused by harmful invasive species:
Shellfish poisoning and cholera.
Flu and cholera.
Cholera and asthma.
Shellfish poisoning and flu.
Next question
Select ONE option that most accurately completes the following statement: Sulphur oxides are formed:
When sulphur from the fuel reacts with oxygen in the air, in the engine.
When tank washings from oil tankers are discharged to the sea and evaporate.
When sulphur from the air reacts with oxygen from the air, in the engine.
When sulphur from the air reacts with hydrocarbons in the fuel, in the engine.
Next question
Select THREE effects of ingestion of plastics:
Sharp litter objects cause internal injuries.
Animals starve to death.
Animals stop eating because the stomach is full.
Plastics in their stomach cause them to be hungry all the time.
Next question
Select THREE long term effects of the Exxon Valdez spill:
Economic loss for commercial fisheries.
Oil buried in the sediments still affects sea otters.
Killer whale populations have not fully recovered.
Plankton has disappeared from Prince William Sound.
Next question
Select THREE of the following statements that apply to bioaccumulation:
Chemicals are passed on in the food chain from prey to predator.
The concentration of bio-accumulating substances increases higher up in the food chain.
Some chemicals have bioaccumulation factors of one hundred thousand, meaning that the concentration in predators are one hundred thousand times higher than in the surrounding water.
Because of bioaccumulation low concentrations of chemicals are broken down quickly.
Next question
Select THREE of the following statements which are true:
Microplastics are eaten by small animals at the base of the food chain.
Chemicals in microplastics may be passed on in the food chain.
Microplastics are present worldwide in marine sediments.
Microplastics are not eaten by fish.
Next question
Select THREE potential consequences of climate change for the marine environment:
Coral bleaching.
Decline of phytoplankton communities.
Acidification of the oceans.
Change of plastic distribution patterns.
Next question
Select THREE statements that apply to acute toxic effects:
They range from disorder and nausea to coma and death.
They often occur after exposure to high doses in a short time.
They are taken into account when developing environmental regulations.
They include the loss of short term memory and the development of cancer.
Next question
Select TWO air emission problems that are caused by both sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides:
Acidification.
Smog.
Ozone depletion.
Particulate Matter.
Next question
Select TWO options that complete the following statement. Chronic effects of HNS are often unknown:
Because the effects over a long time are hard to measure.
Because many different processes occur over long time periods.
Therefore chronic effects are not considered important.
Because the environmental damage caused by chronic effects is always small.
Next question
Select the ONE option that best describes the main ways in which shipping contributes to the introduction of marine invasive species:
Ballast water and biofouling.
Ballast water and food waste.
Biofouling and solid waste.
Food waste and solid waste.
Next question
Select the ONE option that describes what special areas with stricter regulations under MARPOL Annex VI are called:
Emission Control Areas.
Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas.
Emission Restriction Areas.
Marine Protected Areas.
Next question
Select the ONE option that most accurately completes the following statement: Climate change can cause coral bleaching. This means that:
Corals release the algae that live within the coral tissues.
White corals grow better in higher temperature water.
Acidification caused by climate change turns the corals white.
Corals need to be painted white to protect them from higher temperatures.
Next question
Select the ONE option that most accurately completes the following statement: Discharging sludge and waste oil is prohibited in all circumstances, but discharge of engine room bilge water:
Is allowed when the oil content is no higher than 15 ppm and the ship is proceeding en route.
Is allowed everywhere in the marine environment.
Is allowed when a ship is proceeding on route further than 200 nm from the shore.
Is never allowed.
Next question
Select the ONE option that most accurately completes the following statement. The theory of Ballast Water Exchange in mid-ocean is based on:
The difference in living circumstances between open ocean and coastal seas.
The amount of clean water available in the open ocean.
The difference is turbulence between open oceans and coastal seas.
The difference in depth between open ocean and coastal seas.
Next question
Select the ONE option that most accurately describes the process of acidification/acid rain:
Certain compounds in engine air emissions form acids and increase the acidity of the environment.
Cargo residues containing acids are released into the marine environment.
Factories discharge waste water with acids into rivers and lakes.
Cleaning fluids containing acids have an impact on the environment.
Next question
Select the ONE option why shipping is often referred to as one of the least environmentally damaging forms of transport (in comparison to road and air)?
Because it is by far the most energy efficient.
Because a large part of shipping takes place in remote ocean areas.
Because road and air transport modes use fuel with much more sulphur.
Because ships have the most modern engines.
Next question
Select the TWO options that complete the following statement. Crude oil is a complicated mixture containing:
Hydrocarbons, sulphur and several metals.
Hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and several metals.
Hydrocarbons, plastics and chemicals.
Hydrocarbons, sewage and several metals.
Next question
The ONE goal of the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is:
To reduce fuel consumption and decrease CO2 emissions.
To label the energy performance of the ship.
To manage the sulphur emissions of the vessel.
To check the attitude of the ship’s crew.
Next question
The ONE option that describes the toxicological principles of the categories in MARPOL Annex II are:
Bioaccumulation, biodegradation and toxicity.
Toxicity, molecule size and density.
Density, bioaccumulation and toxicity.
Bioaccumulation, biodegradation and density.
Next question
The abbreviation HNS stands for:
Hazardous and Noxious Substances.
Hydrocarbons and Noxious Substances.
Huge Numbers of Ships.
Health, NOx and SOx.
Next question
The mission of the IMO includes promoting environmentally sound and sustainable shipping. Which ONE of the following conventions has had the largest contribution to a significant decrease in pollution from international shipping?
MARPOL.
STCW Code.
COLREG.
SOLAS.
Next question
What is the ONE most relevant difference between the open seas and coastal seas with respect to sewage regulations?
Open oceans are nutrient-poor while coastal seas contain many nutrients.
Open oceans are deeper than coastal seas.
More whales live in the open oceans.
The coastal seas are more turbulent than open oceans.
Next question
What percentage of the world’s trade is carried out over sea?
90 %.
70 %.
50 %.
30 %.
Next question
When oil enters the sea, there are four main weathering processes that occur first, within a couple of days. These are best describes by which ONE option?
Spreading, evaporation, dispersion and emulsification.
Spreading, evaporation, sedimentation and emulsification.
Spreading, sedimentation, dissolution and emulsification.
Spreading, oxidation, dispersion and dissolution.
Next question
Which ONE group of chemicals are most likely to affect organisms living in water?
Dissolvers.
Evaporators.
Sinkers.
Floaters.
Next question
Which ONE invasive species is best described by the following statement: This species has nearly wiped out the anchovy population in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, causing losses of around 500 million euro’s per year and causing fishermen to stop fishing.
The comb jelly.
The blue mussel.
Green sea fingers.
Golden mussel.
Next question
Which ONE key element of the Ship Recycling Convention will have consequences for all ship’s crews?
Every ship must have an Inventory of Hazardous Materials.
Ship recycling yards must operate on the basis of a ship recycling plan.
Ship’s crew must remove all hazardous materials before a ship is accepted by a ship recycling yard.
Ships are inspected before they are scrapped.
Next question
Which ONE of the following combinations of emissions to air is especially due to the increased use of heavy fuel oil by ships?
PM and SOx.
NOx and SOx.
CO2 and NOx.
PM and CO2.
Next question
Which ONE of the following is NOT a potential consequence of climate change?
Depletion of the ozone layer.
Sea level rise.
Extreme weather conditions.
Global temperature rises.
Next question
Which ONE of the following methods contributes to the transport of large marine species to other sea areas by ships?
In ballast tanks – marine organisms are transported during their planktonic phase.
In ballast tanks – often filters don’t work.
In ballast tanks – they hide in the sediments.
By seafarers that keep aquaria on board.
Next question
Which ONE of the following statements best describes why animals eat plastics?
Because the plastic looks like food they normally eat.
Because they are stupid.
Because plastic tastes good to them.
Because they do not have anything else to eat.
Next question
Which ONE of the following statements best describes why plastic is found worldwide, even in remote areas?
Floating, persistent items can travel with sea currents.
Humans live everywhere.
Birds transport the plastic to remote places.
In the past, humans use remote areas as garbage dumps.
Next question
Which ONE of the following statements best describes why the term “ship recycling” is accurate?
Up to 97 % of a ship can be reused.
The ships are dismantled and all materials used on new ships.
Most material from ships has to be thrown away.
10 % of a ship can be reused.
Next question
Which ONE of the following statements is NOT true?
Ship sounds cause brain damage in whales and dolphins.
Ships noise causes problems for marine life when the background noise under water becomes too loud.
Ship noise causes problems when sounds have the same frequency as the sounds made by marine mammals.
Noise levels under water have doubled every ten years since the 1950s.
Next question
Which ONE of the following statements is NOT true?
Small particles (PM) are mainly a problem for humans because of their bad smell.
Air pollution can be a threat to human health.
Air pollution types that have most impact on human health are smog and particulate matter (PM).
Ozone is one of the main components of smog.
Next question
Which ONE of the following statements is true:
In general, lighter oils are more likely to mix in water and are toxic to marine life.
In general, lighter oils remain on the water surface and may smother birds.
In general, lighter oils do not mix in the water column.
In general, lighter oils cause no harm to the environment.
Next question
Which ONE of the following statements regarding the Anti-Fouling Convention is true?
The Convention prohibits the use of harmful organic compounds containing tin in anti-fouling paints.
The Convention prohibits the use of all toxic substances in anti-fouling paint.
The Convention prohibits the use of heavy metals in anti-fouling paints.
Next question
Which ONE of these describes topics that are not part of MARPOL, but are captured in separate conventions?
Anti-fouling, alien species and ship recycling.
Air emissions, alien species and ship recycling.
Anti-fouling, alien species and garbage.
Anti-fouling, alien species and sewage.
Next question
Which ONE oil weathering process is best described by the following statement. “The oil slick on the water surface takes up sea water”.
Emulsification.
Spreading.
Dissolution.
Dispersion.
Next question
Which ONE option describes the areas affected by harmful invasive species?
Fisheries, water supply systems and harbours.
Fisheries.
Water supply systems.
Harbours.
Next question
Which ONE option is treated as an exception to the discharge of marine litter in the marine environment since 2013?
Ground food waste.
Very fine plastics.
Metals.
Paper.
Next question
Which ONE part of the oil is most toxic to plankton?
Aromatic hydrocarbons.
Heavy hydrocarbons.
Atoms containing sulphur.
Cyclic alkanes.
Next question
Which ONE process is best described by the following statement. “Chemicals are passed on in the food chain from prey to predator, and concentrations are highest in the top predator”.
Bioaccumulation.
Biodegradation.
Acute toxicity.
Chronic toxicity.
Next question
Which ONE statement about the breaking down of plastics is true?
Plastics break down into ever smaller pieces.
Plastics dissolve in the water column when they break down.
Plastics are made of oil and some bacteria eat plastics.
Plastics are broken down by fish.
Next question
Which ONE statement about tributyltin, TBT, is FALSE?
TBT caused animals to lose their reproductive organs.
TBT was a very effective anti-fouling method.
TBT is considered one of the most toxic substances ever deliberately released into the sea.
TBT bioaccumulates and is highly toxic.
Next question
Which ONE statement applies to the pools of garbage?
Ocean currents drive plastic wastes together and the pools of garbage are like a plastic soup.
The pools of garbage are like solid islands one could walk on.
The pools of garbage are located in busy shipping lanes.
Most waste in the pools of garbage floats on top of the water surface.
Next question
Which THREE of the following conventions are designed to protect the marine environment?
MARPOL.
The Ballast Water Management Convention.
The Anti-Fouling Systems Convention.
Maritime Labour Convention.
Next question
Which THREE of the following statements apply to problems caused by microplastics?
Microplastics are so small, we hardly recognize them as litter.
Microplastics may transfer toxic chemicals to humans eating contaminated fish.
Chemicals and contaminants can be transferred to tissues of marine animals via ingested microplastics.
Microplastics are so small, they do not cause any problems.
Next question
Which THREE of the following statements are true?
Fish species and lobsters use sound to attract mates or to scare off predators.
Man-made underwater noise can disturb communication between marine mammals and change their behaviour.
The level of underwater noise may increase the collision rate of vessels with marine mammals (ship strikes).
Some crabs use sounds in the same way bats do to “see” the environment (echolocation).
Next question
Which THREE of the following statements are true?
Scientist agree that since 1750, the overall effect of human activities on the climate has been a warming one.
Without the greenhouse effect, life on earth as we know it would not be possible.
CO2 is the most important human-based greenhouse gas.
Humans do not play a role in climate change.
Next question
Which THREE of the following statements are true?
In certain local port areas (like Long Beach, California), the percentage of SOx and NOx emitted by ships is much higher than the global average.
In certain local port areas, ships contribute more to SOx emissions than road transport.
The contribution of SOx is related to the type of fuel used on ships.
The contribution of NOx is related to cargo residues.
Next question
Which THREE of the following statements are true?
SOx and NOx emitted at the middle of the ocean, far away from land, do not contribute to local problems on land such as acidification and human health issues.
Seventy percent of all shipping traffic takes place close to shore, therefore air emissions from ships contribute to environmental issues on land.
Air emissions from ships contribute to both worldwide and local problems.
Only seventy percent of all shipping traffic takes place close to shore, therefore air emissions from ships do not contribute to environmental issues on land.
Next question
Which THREE of the following statements is true?
Carbon dioxide is formed when carbon in the fuel reacts with oxygen in the air.
Nitrogen oxides are formed when nitrogen and oxygen in the air react under high temperatures in the ships engine.
Particulate matter are extremely small solid particles that are mainly carbon-based and are a by-product of the combustion process.
Particulate matter does not contain sulphur.
Next question
Which THREE processes determine the ecological effects of chemicals for the marine environment?
Toxicity.
Bioaccumulation.
Biodegradation.
Biofluorescence.
Next question
Which THREE statements about sewage are true?
Sewage may cause over fertilization of coastal areas.
Enclosed seas are especially sensitive to over fertilization.
The Baltic is the only Annex IV special area.
Sewage is especially harmful when discharged in the open ocean.
Next question
Which THREE statements about tributyltin, TBT, are true?
TBT causes a situation called imposex.
TBT is very harmful because it bioaccumulates.
TBT is very harmful because it biodegrades very slowly.
TBT is only harmful when present at high doses.
Next question
Which TWO of the following environmental problems are an outcome of emissions from a ship sailing in the middle of the open ocean?
Climate Change.
Ozone depletion.
Corrosion of old buildings.
Health problems (smog).
Next question
Which TWO of the following options apply to the MARPOL Convention?
This IMO Convention regulates prevention of pollution from ships.
This IMO Convention has contributed to a decrease in oil pollution from international shipping.
This IMO Convention regulates maritime police interventions.
This IMO Convention has not entered into force yet.
Next question
Which TWO of the following statements are true?
Consequences of climate change are hard to predict because the Earth climate system is very complex.
Consequences of climate change are uncertain because in the Earth climate system, many different processes take place at the same time.
The effects of climate change are uncertain because the effects are so small they are hard to measure.
The effects of climate change are easy to predict.
Next question
Which TWO of the following statements are true?
Small discharges can have a big impact on the environment.
Most oil pollution results from operational discharges.
Only large amounts of oil have negative effects on the environment.
The effects of operational discharges are well studied.
Next question
Which TWO of the following statements are true?
Shipping is considered to be the most important source of marine invasive species across the world.
In sea-going ships, species travel along in ballast water or attach themselves to ship hulls.
Biofouling is responsible for 90 % of the introduction of marine invasive species worldwide.
Ballast water is responsible for 90 % of the introduction of marine invasive species worldwide.
Next question
Which TWO statements apply to the inventory of hazardous materials (IHM) on ships?
This is a list of all materials present on board that may be hazardous to man and nature.
Ship owners will be responsible for maintaining and updating the IHM throughout the life of the ship.
Ship recycling facilities will be responsible for maintaining and updating the IHM throughout the life of the ship.
An alternative to the IHM is to apply for a “Green Passport” which is required for ships moving across borders for recycling.
Next question
Which group of chemicals causes most concern for vessel crew health?
Evaporators.
Sinkers.
Floaters.
Dissolvers.
Next question
Which of the TWO answers below describe ecological impacts of chemicals for marine life?
Substances such as caustic soda cause fish to die.
If a chemical negatively affects one species, this may also impact other species in the food web that are dependent on the affected species.
Chemicals do not effect whales.
In the marine environment, chemical substances are always diluted by sea water which makes them harmless for marine life.
Next question
Which of the TWO options correctly describes what happens when zooplankton is exposed to dissolved oil compounds in the laboratory?
The zooplankton dies.
The zooplankton stops moving.
The zooplankton eats the oil.
The zooplankton form colonies.
Next question
Which of the following THREE regarding the beaching of ships are correct?
People regularly get killed in accidents.
Drilling holes to let oil drain out in the environment is common practice.
Waste reception facilities are rarely available.
There is no market for steel products, so most steel is thrown away.
Next question
Which of the following TWO statements are true?
IMO estimate that, if no action is taken, by 2050 shipping CO2 emissions will have tripled.
CO2 emissions contribute to climate change, which is seen as one of the most serious problems facing the world today.
CO2 emissions of ships are relatively high compared to road transport.
CO2 regulations for ships are stricter than for most other industries.
Next question
Which of the following TWO statements are true?
In general, heavier oils remain on the water surface.
In general, heavier oils are most likely to smother birds.
In general, heavier oils are more likely to mix in the water column and are toxic to marine life.
In general, heavier oils cause no harm to the environment.
Next question
Which oil weathering process is best described by the following statement. “Part of the oil slick will break up into fragments and droplets of varying sizes”.
Dispersion.
Spreading.
Dissolution.
Emulsification.
Next question
* In some questions may be more, than one right answer.
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