A traditional saying has been quoted at the beginning of this chapter. It states that “preparation” is half the battle with serving food, but what is the other?
According to the Marine Guidance Note quoted in this training module, deep freeze units should be maintained at or below which of the following temperatures?
-18 °C (0 °F).
0 °C (32 °F).
-32 °C (-26 °F).
18 °C (64 °F).
According to the authority quoted in this training module, which of the following temperatures must never be exceeded in cold rooms and refrigerators?
0 °C (32 °F).
5 °C (41 °F).
-18 °C (0 °F).
-5 °C (23 °F).
According to the standard quoted in this training module (UK MCA MGN 61) what is the minimum temperature to which those foods suitable for re-use must be re-heated?
75 °C (167 °F).
100 °C (212 °F).
50 °C (122 °F).
63 °C (145 °F).
Approximately how long will an 8 kg (17,5 lbs) frozen turkey take to defrost thoroughly in a refrigerator or cold-room?
1 1/2 days.
As quoted in this training module, at what maximum temperature should “cold” food be kept?
5 °C (41 °F).
0 °C (32 °F).
12 °C (54 °F).
-8 °C (18 °F).
As quoted in this training module, at what minimum temperature should “hot” food be kept?
63 °C (145 °F).
50 °C (122 °F).
100 °C (212 °F).
72 °C (162 °F).
Bacteria cannot be avoided, or ignored, in the food industry, but, in most cases, the risks can be eliminated by good galley practice and safe food handling procedures. Which two of the following are the main strategies designed to reduce the negative impact of bacteria in food?
Prevent the food becoming contaminated.
Prevent the bacteria from multiplying.
Adding ingredients which will kill the bacteria once inside the human body.
There are not really any effective strategies to reduce the negative impact of bacteria in food.
Besides contaminated food, what else may be a common and direct source of viral food poisoning on board ship, as described in this module?
The water supply.
The refrigerators and freezer stores.
The cutlery and glassware.
By what name are the poisons associated with food poisoning known?
Food stored in a refrigerator should be covered, wrapped or placed in containers to prevent drying out and cross-contamination. As explained in this training module, what else will such procedures help to prevent?
The absorption of odours.
Rapid discoloration of the food.
Sweating and build-up of moisture on the food surface.
The food having to be thrown away after it reaches its “use by” date.
How can wastage best be prevented with prepared cold dishes?
Only make a limited amount and accept there may not be enough to serve everybody.
Part of the dish can be kept back in the refrigerator or cold-room until needed to replace food that has been consumed.
Immediately freeze half of the dish when prepared and defrost it again in the microwave immediately before service.
Keep the dish covered during service, to keep it cool.
How may cold food best be kept at the required temperature on a buffet?
By nesting the dish in a bowl of ice.
By turning up the air conditioning.
By placing it in the freezer for half an hour before serving.
By keeping it away from hot food.
How might you best determine if a joint of meat is cooked right through?
By cutting the joint in half and tasting a piece from the middle.
By allowing between 1 and 2 hours after the outside of the joint is seen to start changing colour.
By ensuring that the oven is set at a minimum of 180 °C (356 °F).
By using a meat thermometer.
How would you treat a cooked joint of meat and some uncooked sausages, both required for the same evening meal?
I would keep them apart. It is critical to always keep raw and cooked food completely separate.
I would store them together until required.
I would not be able to use them in the same meal.
I would add the sausages to the container containing the joint of meat and reheat for 15 minutes. In this way, they are served at the same temperature.
In recent years, what type of food poisoning has been particularly associated with outbreaks on cruise ships?
That caused by the improper use of chemicals.
In which of the following circumstances should a waiter or steward talk to a diner?
To warn him when his plate is extremely hot.
To tell him that the cook has a cold.
To ask him if he is hungry.
To ask him not to spill his food on the table cloth.
In which one of the following can the Escherichia coli (E-Coli) bacteria commonly be found?
Is it permitted to mix together batches of raw and cooked minced beef in the same dish?
No, raw meat and cooked meat should never be mixed together.
Yes, this is a good way to prevent wastage.
Yes, provided more than half is the cooked portion.
Yes, but only if the mixture is to be heated immediately.
Is it safe to eat food that has reached its “use by” date?
Yes, provided it smells alright.
Yes, provided it looks alright.
Yes, so long as it is thoroughly cooked before serving.
Prior to cooking, which one of the following is the usual technique employed, to ensure raw beans are safe to eat?
They should be thoroughly soaked.
They should be dry roasted for at least 3 minutes.
They should be salted and left for at least one hour.
They should be stored in the refrigerator overnight (or for a minimum 12 hours).
The “Staphylococcus Aureus” bacterium is commonly associated with cream-filled cakes and pies and other dairy products. Improperly chilled foods are also often a source. By which one of the following additional routes may the infection also be spread?
Bacterial infections originating in the noses and throats of food handlers or cuts on their skin.
Cooked meat, which has been allowed to cool and is later re-used in another meal.
To prevent the growth of bacteria in food, we must ensure that food is maintained outside a temperature range known as the “danger zone”. What are the generally accepted limits of that zone, as quoted in this training module?
5 °C to 63 °C (41 °F to 145 °F).
0 °C to 100 °C (32 °F to 212 °F).
10 °C to 75 °C (50 °F to 170 °F).
5 °C to 75 °C (41 °F to 170 °F).
What are “mycotoxins”?
Poisonous substances, often resulting in liver or kidney disease, produced by some moulds under certain conditions.
This is the name given to the form of viral food poisoning which accounts for approximately one third of the cases recorded in Western Europe.
Poisonous plants of the tomato family.
Highly toxic reef-living fish, of which the barracuda is an example.
What does a “best before” food label indicate?
It shows the date that the food must be consumed by.
It shows the date on which the food must be disposed of.
It shows how long the food will be at its best quality.
It shows how long the food will survive without being refrigerated.
What is the maximum period that both raw and cooked perishable foods should be left at room temperature?
What is “Ciguatera”?
The name given to food poisoning which results from eating contaminated fish.
The flowery green leaves on the tops of carrots.
A West-Indian cooking technique involving heated stones.
A Spanish herb commonly used in fish dishes.
What kind of arrangement should exist for handling “incoming” dirty plates and cutlery?
All dirty plates and cutlery should be left on the table until the end of the meal.
They should be kept completely separate from “outgoing” food and clean plates and cutlery.
They can be brought into the galley and placed on the work benches, alongside the outgoing food and plates.
They should be given a quick wipe and re-used.
What reason can the growth of mycotoxins usually be traced back to?
Foods that have been improperly stored, especially in warm or humid conditions.
A contaminated water source.
Soil that has been packed around the roots of vegetables.
Crowded conditions, such as may be found on cruise liners.
What should be done with ice cream that has defrosted?
It must be used immediately or thrown away.
It should be re-frozen immediately.
It should be set to one side for use in coffee.
It should be carefully mixed with frozen ice cream.
What should happen to any cooked rice left after a meal?
It should be thrown away.
It should be refrigerated and can be re-heated later.
It should be frozen for future use.
It should be washed and used in a salad dish the following day.
What should you do if you discover an egg with a cracked shell in the tray you are using to prepare omelettes?
Break it into a separate dish and see what it smells like.
Throw it away.
Use it, as it will not matter in a mix of several eggs.
Put it to one side to hard-boil for use in a salad dish.
What should you do with a batch of whipped cream you have prepared for use on a fruit desert to be served in around two hours’ time?
It must be covered and left on the work bench until required.
It must be placed in a refrigerator until required.
It must be spooned over the fruit immediately and the dishes set to one side ready for serving when required.
It should be monitored until needed and, if it appears to be thickening, a few spoons of milk should be added and stirred in.
What type of fish is particularly associated with Ciguatera food poisoning?
Large reef fish.
Small shoal fish.
When chilling food, why is it important to achieve rapid but controlled cooling of the surface?
Because this is where the bulk of bacterial contamination occurs.
Because discoloration will occur if cooling is too slow.
Because freeze contamination will occur if the process takes too long.
Because that is the part in contact with the packaging.
When defrosting food in cold water, what should be done with the water?
It should be changed every 30 minutes, to ensure the thawing process continues evenly.
If the food remains partly frozen, add a little hot water and defrost for an additional 15 minutes.
The water must not be disturbed during the defrosting process.
It should be changed every 2 hours.
When defrosting frozen meat in cold water, it must be in a leak-proof package or plastic bag. If the bag leaks, bacteria from the air or surrounding environment could be introduced into the food. What is the other risk described in this training module?
The meat will discolour.
The meat will give off an offensive smell.
The packaging will start to disintegrate and small bits of plastic may stick to the meat during cooking.
The meat tissue may absorb water, resulting in a watery product.
When food has been cooked in a microwave oven, why is it important to allow the required “standing time”?
Because it completes the cooking process.
So that any oil or fat drains away.
So that any food which has risen during cooking returns to its proper size and shape.
So that the stewards do not burn their fingers during service.
When marinating foods, where should they be placed?
In a refrigerator or coldroom.
On a work bench.
In the oven, as marinating should take place during cooking.
It doesn’t matter where marinating takes place.
When planning your food preparation schedule, generally speaking what is the intention after food is cooked?
That it should be served within 3 hours.
That it will be served within 6 hours.
That it will be served within 24 hours.
That it will be served immediately.
When taking a carton of fresh tomatoes out of the cold store to use in a salad, you notice that some of the fruits are bruised, broken or discoloured. What will you do with them?
Dispose of them immediately.
Use them for a soup instead.
Put them back on the shelf and maybe use them in something else later.
Use them in the salad anyway and hope that nobody notices.
Which foodstuff is the Bacillus Cereus most commonly associated with?
Cooked rice that has been kept warm over a prolonged period.
Raw meat that has been frozen for a prolonged period.
Which of the bacteria listed below is commonly associated with eggs?
Which of the following best describes the short-term risk that would be encountered if a frozen chicken was just left on the bench to defrost?
There would be an increased chance of bacterial infection.
The skin would discolour.
The flesh would start to decompose.
The outer parts of the bird would defrost, but the inner parts would remain frozen.
Which of the times quoted below is a typical time that red meat may safely be stored in a freezer for?
Up to 2 years.
Up to 1 month.
Which one of the following bacteria is commonly associated with soil, often found clinging to raw vegetables?
Which one of the following can safely be eaten without risk of a stomach disorder?
The leaves of celery.
The leaves of tomato plants.
Raw kidney beans.
Which one of the following cheeses has a deliberate surface mould, created during its manufacture?
Which two factors, from those listed below and as quoted in this training module, are advantages of the freezing of food?
Buying in bulk.
All kinds of foods can be stored together.
Which type of pan is a risk in terms of food poisoning if left in prolonged contact with foodstuffs?
Which type of ship is generally felt to be most at risk of an outbreak of large-scale food poisoning?
Cargo ships, carrying foodstuffs as cargo.
Which viral food poisoning is alternatively known as the “Cruise Ship Illness”?
Why can the Ciguatera toxins not be neutralised simply by cooking the fish to a specified temperature?
Because they will return as the fish cools to eating temperature.
Because the toxins inhabit the skin of the fish and they are transferred to the cooking liquor as it is cooked.
Because these toxins are particularly heat resistant.
Because the toxins are contained in the bones of the fish and are released into the flesh by cooking.
Why must food stock be “rotated”?
To ensure older items are consumed first.
To ensure even weight distribution on storage shelves over time.
So that the cook knows what foods he has in the store and can vary the menus.
Because it is a security requirement under the ISPS Code.
* In some questions may be more, than one right answer.
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