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Emergency Procedures on Terminal and First Aid to Victims

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Emergency procedures on terminal are important to ensure the safety of personnel, facilities and the environment in the event of unexpected incidents. A huge range of procedures includes: alarm procedures i. e. immediate activation of alarms to notify personnel of an emergency situation. Evacuation includes clear instructions for transporting staff and visitors to safe assembly areas, assigning trained personnel to respond to emergencies, and coordinating response efforts. Communication protocols must be established: establishing communication channels for reporting emergencies and providing updates. Firefighting equipment, first aid kits, spill containment materials, etc. must be available and maintained.

Training sessions and emergency drills must be conducted regularly to familiarize personnel with response procedures. Incident reports must be compiled: protocols for reporting and documenting emergency incidents for the purposes of investigation and improvement. Coordination with authorities is required: collaboration with local emergency services to respond to emergencies in a timely and effective manner.

Terminal Emergency Plan

The Objective of an Emergency/Incident Plan to cover transfer operation should be made to make maximum use of the resources of the ship, terminal and local authority.

The Emergency Plan must be directed at achieving the following aims:

  • saving life, by rescuing and treating casualty;
  • bringing the incident under control;
  • minimizing damage to property;
  • safeguarding others.

The details of the plans should consider the appropriate actions to be taken in all envisaged emergency.

The plans should include the following:

  • The specific initial action to be taken by those at the location of the emergency to report, contain and overcome the incident/emergency.
  • Procedures are followed in mobilizing the resources of the terminal as required by the incident.
  • Alerting responsibility and procedures.
  • Reporting location for personnel involved.
  • Emergency organization giving specific duties of each person.
  • Communicating system.
  • An inventory including location details of emergency.

The terminal emergency plan allow to urgent preventive action by those at the location of the emergency.

It is important to mobilized quickly all resources of the terminal and the local assistance as a concentrated effort to deal with the accident.

The failure to define the line of responsibility can easily lead to confusion and loss of valuable lives.

At major large terminals it is probable that a control center will be set up at a convenient central point, not adjacent to the location of the incident-possibly in the main terminal office. Particularly in case of major fires, a secondary unit, the forward control, may be needed to take charge of operations at the site of the accident, under the overall command of the control center.

The control center must be capable of directing, coordinating and controlling all firefighting and other emergency activities.

The control center must be fully responsive at any time of the day or night and under shift working condition.

The control station while always responsible for initiation and direction of immediate action, the emergency organization may come under the direction of the port authority.

Emergency Shut Down

All gas carriers and all large gas terminals must process a system for rapid emergency shut-down of cargo transfer.

Emergency Shut Down (ESD) system are fitted at Gas terminals to ships.

It is recommended that these systems are compatible and that they are interlinked by the ship-shore interface. Suitable plugs and sockets must be provided.

The main purpose of a link ESD system is to have safe ship and shore control over the entire ESD system. This is in order to ensure a safe shut down on line with valve times.

The ESD should be initiated by following emergency.

  • Ship.
  • Manual Trip.
  • Operational of Manual trip.

Automatic Trip:

  • Shut down signal from shore.
  • Overfilling of any cargo tanks.
  • Power loss to valve controls.
  • Loss of control air pressure.
  • ESD valve moving from full open.
  • ESD logic failure.
  • Fire in cargo area.
  • Loss of electric power.

Terminal Manual Trip.
Operational of Manual trip.

Automatic Trip:

  • Shut down signal from ship.
  • Power loss to arm maneuvering.
  • Power loss to ERS.
  • ESD logic failure Ship movement pre-ERS.
  • Activation of the PERC.
  • High level in surge drum.
  • Fire in Terminal Area.

The ESD Should be initiated by following emergency:

Ship:

  • Shut down signal from shore.
  • Overfilling of any cargo tanks.
  • Power loss to valve controls.
  • Loss of control air pressure.
  • ESD valve moving from full open.
  • ESD logic failure.
  • Fire in cargo area.
  • Loss of electric power.

Terminal:

  • Shut down signal from ship.
  • Overfilling of receiving tank.
  • Power loss to arm maneuvering.
  • ESD logic failure.
  • Loss of electric power.
  • Ship movement pre-ERS.
  • Activation of PERC.
  • High level in surge drum.
  • Fire in terminal area.

ESD should initiate the following immediate Actions.

On ship:

  1. Send shut down signal to the shore.
  2. Trip ships cargo signal and spray pumps.
  3. Trip booster pumps (LPG) Trip.
  4. Vapor Return Compressor.
  5. Start to close ships ESD valve.

On Terminal (Loading):

  1. Send shut down signal to the ship via the ship/shore link.
  2. Trip loading pumps.
  3. Open spill back valves.
  4. Start to close ESD valve.

On terminal (Receiving). Send shut down signal to ship/Start to close shore ESD valve.

Four types now in use:

1 Pneumatic types. In the late 1960s there began a significant development of a new class of compressed-air devices:

  • Digital Logic Pneumatic Control Components, which can be used in various power and control systems.

Major types of pneumatic devices:

  • Air compressors and pneumatic tools constitute the principal classes of pneumatic devices.
  • An air compressor is a power driven machine for compressing air from some initial intake pressure (usually atmospheric) to a higher pressure compressors (as well as other fluid machines) can be classified into two main types, depending on the air or fluid action, velocity, or dynamic type.
  • In the positive-displacement, or static pressure type, the characteristics action is a volumetric change or displacement action. Successive volume of air is confined within a closed space, and the pressure is increased by reducing the volume of the space.

2 The electrical type (intrinsically safe).

Using electric switch device for opening or closing electrical circuits under normal load conditions usually operated manually in an intrinsically safe condition onboard or in terminal. Meaning tested and proven sealed.

3 Fiber optic type.

Technique of data and image transmission through the use of flexible, threadlike fibers of glass or plastic and laser-generated light waves.

4 Those operated by radio telemetry.

Highly automated communications process by which measurements are made and other data collected at a remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring display and recording.

Communication

The Basic Knowledge of Hazard ControlsEmergency Control Center should have a communication system linking:

a) Within the terminal:

  • Fire service (ashore and afloat) and vessel alongside.
  • Personnel.
  • Medical service.

b) Outside the terminal:

  • Fire service.
  • Medical service.
  • Harbor Authority.
  • Tugs and launches.
  • Pilots.
  • Police.
  • Other appropriate authorities.

Reliable communications are essential in dealing successfully with emergency situation.

Communication system must have to flexibility to cover operation on the tanker, on the jetty, or adjacent water, or elsewhere in the terminal.

The basic communication which to system must be able to handles:

  • Terminal fire alarm.
  • Calling for assistance.
  • Coordinating and control of all fire fighting,
  • and emergency activities, including movement of vessels and agents.

Terminal emergency plan

Communication system must flexible to cover operation:

  • on a tanker,
  • on the jetty or
  • adjacent water, or
  • elsewhere in the terminal.

Most of the equipment should therefore be portable or mobile particularly that for use by the forward control; moreover, it should be of the type approved for any location in which it may be used.

It is highly recommended to use UHF/VHF radiotelephone system during emergency.

Links from the Control Center.

Communication Discipline.

All personnel should understand and appreciate the necessity for strictly observing rules laid down for using communication in an emergency.

  • All sections should be allocated a call-sign which should always be used to identify the section concerned.
  • Calls, announcements and conversations should be as brief as possible consistent with intelligibility.
  • Calls, announcements and conversation should be interrupted only when the demands of another section are vital to the outcome of the emergency operation.
  • Calls from control center should take priority over other calls.
  • Only authorized personnel may use the system.

Civil authorities including fire services, police and medical services Direct telephone link with failure alarm, UHF/VHF radiotelephone or public telephone system.

Harbor authorities, Pilot, Tugs and other harbor craft – UHF/VHF radiotelephone or public telephone system.

Explains that all personnel should understand and appreciate the necessity for strictly observing rules laid down for using communications in an emergency.

NOTE: It is necessary to specify that working frequencies in ports vary according to the local emergency procedures.

Knowledge and understanding of tanker safety culture and safety managementEmergency removal of tanker from berth.

If fire, on a tanker or on berth cannot be controlled it maybe necessary to consider whether or not the tanker should be removed from berth. Planning for such eventuality may require consultation among port authority representative or Harbor Master, responsible terminal official, the master of the tanker and the senior local fire officer.

The plan should cover the following:

  • Designation of person or persons in order of priority who have the authority to decide whether to remove from retain at her berth a tanker which is on fire.
  • Action to be taken with respect to ships at other berths.
  • Designation of safe locations to which a tanker on fire can be moved under controlled conditions.
  • The decisions on whether to remove a tanker under controlled conditions, to retain it at the berth can involved.

Capability of life fighting equipment at the terminal and readily available from nearby sources.

Availability or tugs for removal of the tanker from the berth.

Ability of the tanker to move under her own power. Availability of adequate fire-fighting equipment and personnel to fight a fire if a tanker is tower to new location.

Proximity of other ships at the terminal.

Shipping and other facilities.

Fire-fighting equipment plan

A terminal Equipment and cargo system of LNG onshore terminalsfire-fighting equipment plan showing clearly the exact locations and particulars of all fire-fighting equipment on or immediately adjacent to the berth should be prominently displayed on the berth.

As required by SOLAS, an up to date, ship fire control and safety plan must be placed in a weather-proof container on both sides of the ship, for the Local Fire Brigade or Authority’s reference or use.

It is recommended that crew list should also be placed in the same container.

In some terminals, the ships fire-fighting plan will be handled down over to the terminal representative during the pre-operational ship/shore procedures.

Adequate units of fixed and or portable equipment should be stationed to cover the ships cargo deck and on the jetty.

The ship and shore fire main systems should be pressurized or capable of being pressurized at short notice.

For easy access, fixed and portable fire-fighting equipment, resuscitation equipment, etc. Should be kept fee of obstruction at all times.

Jetty approaches and jetty heads should at all times be kept free of obstruction to the movement of vehicles. Pack cargo or stores for a ship should not be stacked on the jetty or on jetty approach.

During an emergency, traffic into a terminal or onto berths must be strictly limited to vehicles required to deal with the emergency or render assistance.

Training and drills

The extend of training of terminal personnel in fire prevention and fire-fighting may depend upon whether there is a permanent firefighting unit attached to the terminal.

Selected terminal personnel:

  • should receive instruction in the use of fire-fighting and emergency equipment available at the terminal;
  • should receive instruction in fire prevention and in basic fire-fighting techniques.

Periodic refreshing training should be provided, supplemented by fire drills.

Crews of tugs, which can be used for fire fighting should receive instruction and training in fighting oil fires in co-operation with land base fire fighting services.

Opportunities should be provided at frequent interval for combined practices involving the tug and shore fire fighting services.

Fire-fighting equipment plan

The terminal emergency plan should make the best possible of available services, which can be relied upon.

When an area is located where a concentration of industry exists, it is practicable to set up a mutual assistance plan.

Police and Fire Services

Emergencies requiring assistance beyond the resources of the terminal should be reported to local police and local fire services.

Tugs

Tugs may be required to assist in fire-fighting and unberthing ship involved in the emergency and other ships in the area.

Rescue Launches

A launch or launches when available should be detailed to act as:

  • Rescue launches for the recovery of personnel who may be in the water.
  • Evacuation of personnel who may be trapped on a tanker or on a berth.

These launches should be equipped with communication capable of being integrated into the control center system.

Medical Facilities

During emergency, the terminal and outside medical facilities should be alerted at once depending upon the nature of the emergency, and maybe informed of:

  • Nature and location of emergency.
  • Likelihood of casualties.
  • Whether medical staff are required at the location of the emergency.
  • As soon as details of casualties are known, these should be passed to the appropriate medical authorities with names if available.

Harbor Authorities

Harbor authorities should be informed of any emergency involving the terminal, ships berthed or moored at the terminal with details of:

  • Nature and extent of emergency.
  • Nature of the ships involved, with location.
  • Nature of assistance required.

This information will enable the harbor authority to decide whether to restrict navigation within the port area of or to close the port.

First aid

To meet medical requirement in emergency, both the tanker and terminal must have first aid kits of portable types containing the following:

  • cotton swabs;
  • cotton gauge;
  • assortment of band aid strips;
  • field dressing;
  • triangular bandages;
  • scissors;
  • safety pins;
  • small bottle of disinfectant;
  • 1 sealed pack of parafin gauze for burn treatment;
  • 1 bottle of eye wash.

This is to facilitate convenience and accessibility in case it is necessary:

  • eye protection;
  • stretcher;
  • medical first aid equipment including oxygen resuscitation equipment antidotes.

All protective clothing should be kept serviceable and dry fastened while being worn, stowed near lockers that contained breathing apparatus.

This is to facilitate convenience and accessibility in case it is necessary.

Read also: Examples of the Emergency Situations with Liquefied Gas Carriers

Emergency rescue and transfer

The removal of sick or injured person either the site (terminal) or ashore from a ship is a matter of importance since his life depends on the arrangements made, particularly if he has serious condition from spinal injuries, heart condition or severe fractures.

The Command Controls’ communication links to Internal/ External Medical Service is necessary part of the organizational plan.

In the event of large scale fire within the terminal, terminal personnel may not be able to tend to victims or casualties and this is probably delegated to the local hospitals or medical organization.

In the outbreak of fire and other emergency, it is important to notify the medical organizations and send for ambulance.

The ship or terminals first aiders’ involvement in an emergency rescue and transfer is limited to situations in which professional ambulance or rescue personnel and equipment is not yet available.

Definition of Emergency Rescue:

  • Emergency rescue is a procedure for moving a victim from a dangerous location to a place of safety.

Indications for Immediate Rescue:

  • Fire, danger of fire or explosion.
  • Danger of asphyxia due to lack of oxygen or due to gas.
  • Serious to cold or intense heat.
  • Electrical injury.
  • Pinning by machinery.

Neil Robertson Stretcher

A good general-purpose stretcher for use on board ship, it is easily carried, give firm support to the patient and is particularly useful in narrow spaces when difficult corners have to be negotiated or when the patient has to be hoisted.

  1. To assist these professionals when they are available;
  2. and to remove the victims when there is immediate danger to their lives.

It should be recognized that more harm can be done through any other measure associated with emergency assistance.

Rescuers at work
Providing assistance to the elderly

As a rule, rescue from confinement or pinning should be carried out by ambulance or rescue personnel.

Author
Author photo - Olga Nesvetailova
Freelancer
Literature
  1. The international group of liquefied natural gas importers (GIIGNL). LNG custody transfer handbook / 6th Edition: 2020-2021.
  2. American Gas Association, Gas Supply Review, 5 (February 1977).
  3. ©Witherby Publishing Group Ltd. LNG Shipping Knowledge / 3rd Edition: 2008-2020.
  4. CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. Design of LPG and LNG Jetties with Navigation and Risk Analysis / 4th Edition.
  5. NATURAL GAS PROCESSING & ITS ENERGY TRANSITION ROLE: LNG, CNG, LPG & NGL Paperback – Large Print, November 14, 2023.
  6. American Gas Association, Gas Supply Review, 5 (February 1977).
  7. The Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO). Ship/Shore Interface / 1st Edition, 2018.
  8. Federal Power commission, Trunkline LNG Company et al., Opinion No. 796-A, Docket No s. CP74-138-140 (Washington, D. C.: Federal Power Commission, June 30, 1977).
  9. Federal Power Commission, Final Environmental Impact Statement Calcasieu LNG Project Trunkline LNG Company Docket No. CP74-138 et al., (Washington, D. C.: Federal Power Commission, September 1976).
  10. Federal Power Commission, «FPC Judge Approves Importation of Indonesia LNG».
  11. Federal Power Commission, «Table of LNG imports and exports for 1976», News Release, June 3, 1977, and Federal Energy Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 1977.
  12. Office of Technology Assessment LNG panel meeting, Washington, D. C., June 23, 1977.
  13. Socio-Economic Systems, Inc., Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Oxnard LNG Facilities, Safety, Appendix B (Los Angeles, Ca.: Socio-Economic Systems, 1976).
  14. «LNG Scorecard», Pipeline and Gas Journal 203 (June 1976): 20.
  15. Dean Hale, «Cold Winter Spurs LNG Activity»: 30.

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