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Quality control of cargo handling work in LNG carriers

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Three cargo handling problems caused by human errors arose in LNG vessels. Measures to prevent recurrence have been adopted each time a problem attributed to human error arose, but human errors have possibility to occur all the time repeatedly.

Bridge Team Management (BTM) has been introduced with the aim of safety navigation, and it has been fairly successful. BTM is not merely a theoretical concept, but is a practical technique for safe operation.

The BTM technique has also been incorporated in cargo handling operation of LNG vessels, and problems attributed to human error have been eliminated. As a systematic working method to perform work safely, it has been condensed as CCR Team Management (CCR-TM).

Furthermore, CCR-TM aims to continually improve cargo handling work on the ship by intelligently cycling through P-D-C-A, as part of the QC activities on board the ship as follows:

  1. Preparations beforehand (Plan);
  2. During cargo handling work (Do);
  3. After cargo handling work (Check);
  4. Feedback (Action).

CCR team management

CCR Team Management is a practical work method to confirm every single work by multiple persons so as to prevent problems in cargo handling attributed to human error.

Which method is considered safe in navigation?

Bridge Team Management has been established as a practical technique for safe navigation. Bridge Team Management is not a general concept, but is a work method to evaluate requirements to ensure safety of navigation that incorporates a system to suit these requirements.

The principles of this work method can be applied to safe cargo handling work of LNG carriers also. Thus, it is an attempt to establish a cargo handling work method incorporating the Bridge Team Management technique.

The cycle of CCR
Fig. 1 P-D-C-A Cycle of CCR Team Management

Safe cargo handling work can be performed properly based on correct procedures and efficient configuration of the organization. It can be realized by ensuring conditions that maintain consistent standards. Consequently, the maximum utilization of various resources, especially human resources for accomplishing work with safety, is entrusted to crewmembers on ships, and all team members have specific roles to play in the organization.

This booklet describes the organizational approach of all team members for fulfilling their roles as a team.

Team management

Team management refers to the utilization of the system as a team function and demonstration of the capability of the team by mutual interaction of members within the team, which cannot be achieved by individual capability.

Training and coaching. Methods to impart knowledge are many and varied, but the two main methods are training and coaching.

Training refers to guiding persons to achieve a fixed level or standard required in stages for performing various jobs or implementing various procedures. More specifically, it refers to the training in shore facilities and the training on board ships.

Coaching refers to expanding current skills through the entrusting of authority or by supervision.

If authority is entrusted to a person as part of coaching process, the said person becomes responsible. An example is entrusting authority to the 3/O for starting and stopping the pump operation, with the aim of educating the officer.

During the training, entrusting authority at a very early stage should be avoided. If the person receiving the training is not ready for the work, it might lead to a loss of self-confidence or a huge drop in the morale, thus having the opposite effect.

Before starting Cargo Handling Systems and Specialised Equipment on LNG LPG Carrierscargo handling work, operations to be performed by each person should be checked, and a system that performs such checks from various aspects should be constructed. Since all CCR watchkeeping personnel are not likely to start work with the same level of knowledge, the job performance of each person should be monitored objectively and feedback given to the person.

Health. To ensure good composition of efficient team members and efficient measures against unexpected problems, sound physical and mental health are required.

Morale. The morale of the crewmembers should be high if safe cargo handling work is to be accomplished. However, if the role of each crewmember is clearly defined, each member is aware of the results of one’s efforts, or if one’s flaws are self-corrected or self-recognized, then excellent teamwork and effective cargo handling work can be anticipated.

Chain of errors

An accident almost never occurs as a result of one cause; most accidents occur as a result of a series of insignificant errors, that is, as a result of a chain of small errors.

To grasp condition awareness, namely, to be aware of what happens and what the conditions are during cargo handling before the work, is effective for unfolding the chain of errors and for familiarizing the watchkeeping personnel with the actions required to eliminate the chain of errors.

The chain error diagram
Fig. 2 Eliminating the chain of errors

Signs of development of chain of errors. The chain of errors develops if the cargo operation has not been implemented as per the Cargo Handling Checklist, or if the elements of condition awareness given below are missing. To eliminate this chain of errors, appropriate actions should be taken.

Ambiguity. Ambiguity refers to subtle signs that indicate matters are not proceeding according to plans. For instance, if an instruction for an operation exists that differs from that of the procedure, immediate response is required to conclude correctly where the error lies, to correct the ambiguity, and to judge correctly which of the two is correct.

A person who is not cautious is likely to accept this fact without having doubts. On the other hand, a person who is cautious, will doubt the ambiguity, and will try to check the difference.

If several team members do not agree on a course of action, ambiguity will remain. In such a case, rather than the ambiguity itself, which is not an issue, the cause of the difference needs to be identified. In this case, it may be said that the condition awareness of some team member is lacking, and a chain of errors has developed.

Carelessness. Carelessness refers to the condition of not paying attention to matters that require attention, or refers to the condition in which awareness of various matters is dispersed, or consciousness is such that the focus of attention is only on one matter and other matters cannot be considered resulting in a state wherein attention cannot be paid to matters that require attention. If such a state exists even for a short period, proper condition awareness is likely to disappear.

An example of this is concentrating only on the cargo handling operation and forgetting the ballasting operation or forgetting to perform adjustments of mooring lines, which are both necessary. Conversely, concentrating on performing adjustments to mooring lines and ignoring other pressing issues occasionally, is another example of the above.

Inadequate preparations and confusion. Compared to an experienced person on cargo work watch, an inexperienced person on cargo work watch is likely to become confused and disoriented during the operation. This is because the inexperienced supervisor has few experiences he can draw upon and visualize; thus, adequate preparations that compensate for the lack of experience are necessary. Even a person on cargo work watch can become disoriented if preparations are neglected.

Dependence. If the leader is very experienced, the team members tend to depend on the leader excessively. In such a situation, the team members lack maturity, their condition awareness becomes slack, they do not question inappropriate instructions, and thus, a dangerous situation may develop.

Breakdown of communications. Communications can be internal or external. Internal communications are between crewmembers, that is, between persons on cargo work watch. Breakdown of internal communications may occur because of physical influences such as noise or mental influences such as human relationships. External communications are mainly those between the terminal and the ship. Breakdown of such communications could occur because of the absence of a common language or plain misunderstanding.

Efforts should always be made to prevent breakdown of communications since this may expose teamwork and mutual awareness to a dangerous condition.

It will be interesting: Sources of ignition on ships carrying LNG/LPG

Inappropriate command and supervision. Inappropriate command or inadequate supervision is a sign of breakdown or lack of proper condition awareness. Safe and correct cargo handling command is the most important element in the team organization. Its breakdown will become dangerous for safe cargo loading work.

Non-fulfillment of cargo operation plan. If differences arise in the actual cargo work and the cargo-operation plan, the command is inappropriate suggesting that the correct condition awareness is in danger of being lost. If such differences arise during the work procedure, then a dangerous situation is likely to occur.

On the other hand, if differences arise between the planned and the actual progress of work during operations at full rate, and if no measures are taken, then the safety of cargo handling work will be endangered.

Conflict of procedure. Deviating from the clearly defined and well-understood operating procedure should be recognized as leading to a breakdown of correct condition awareness. When a procedure specified as Work Instruction is changed unexpectedly based on individual opinion without any discussion and implemented, and furthermore, if such an action has been initiated by an individual within a team’s organization, then it will very clearly lead to a breakdown of the condition awareness.

Cargo handling accidents and causes

Analysis of factors that cause cargo handling problems in recent years show clearly that «team functions are not working» and «satisfactory monitoring is not implemented» in the stages leading up to the problems. Although problems have not occurred in safety campaigns for cargo operation, causes of errors have been found here and there. The causes or errors are summarized below.

Inappropriate assignment of responsibility:

  • Although roles have been assigned clearly, there are situations where they have not been implemented properly. (Assignment of roles not clearly established. Or, not adhered to).
  • No backup system is in place to account for those members with responsibility who have distanced themselves from CCR due to some unavoidable reasons.

Priority sequence is inappropriate (not established):

  • Procedural checks (safety checks) are inadequate (priority of work has not been established).
  • Communication between the CCR and shore, and the manifold work supervisor inadequate, since the supervisor is overburdened with entering records, studying the overall work, and issuing instructions to workers.

Non-implementation of continuous monitoring of instruments, system, and double-checks:

  • Rate down start level has been overlooked. Continuous monitoring of liquid level of various tanks before starting the rate down and of the remaining liquid level until the start of rate down is inadequate.
  • Continuous monitoring of remaining liquid level of various tanks until the stoppage of pump is inadequate.
  • Status report from person in charge of manifold on site during cooling down of arm is inadequate.
  • Before and after various valve operations when configuring lines, self-checks and cross checks for tracking the actual lines are not implemented.

Double-checking is used for cargo operation equipment, for example, to confirm line arrangements, the opening and closing of valves, pressure or temperature readings, and so on, all of which are directly associated with cargo operations. Double-checking is also used as a countermeasure against omissions or errors in documents submitted to charterers, parties concerned in projects, terminals, and so on. In addition, double-checking is used to prepare and check the details of documents.

Non-acquisition of essential information:

  • Items on the checklist do not match the Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling and there are many mistakes in the checklist.
  • Lack of knowledge and instructions that differ from the procedure.
  • Work instructions are not fully in English.
  • English, which is the common language on board the ship, is not being used by all on board.
  • During the cooling down of arm at the discharging port, ship’s officers who can communicate in Japanese have not been stationed all the time at the manifold. Or, the person in charge on the terminal side cannot understand English.

Lack of appropriate leadership:

  • Inadequacy of consistency in policy.
  • Inadequate response (Valve numbers omitted, etc.).
  • Calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions (Hereafter Finger pointing and calling) not being implemented.
  • Inadequate guidance to operator when operator’s level is unsatisfactory.
  • No instructions for load settings of cargo pump.

Configuration of CCR organization (persons on cargo work watch)

The following procedures should be included for configuring an efficient CCR organization:

  1. Eliminate risk of problems that may occur as a result of one person’s mistake.
  2. Emphasize the need for continuing satisfactory monitoring and for implementing methods established for preventing problems, namely the need for implementing CCR-TM.
  3. If operations or instructions are ambiguous, promote the use of necessary information to confirm the cause, such as instruction manuals and Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling.
  4. Perform continuous monitoring during cargo handling work, and use the Cargo operation plan so that deviations from procedures can be detected, or use the method (system) of performing checks by multiple persons.
  5. Understand the errors in all cargo-related equipment and ensure that these errors are properly corrected.

Roles of an individual. Every member of the CCR team has an extremely important role to play for safe cargo-handling work on the ship. For all members of the team to fulfill their roles to the best of their abilities to ensure safety during cargo handling work, each member should be aware that this could be achieved only by dependence on all the members.

Every member should be aware that the safety of the cargo handling work cannot be entrusted to the decision of one person only.

All instructions and operations should be checked with care and caution, and their implementation should also be monitored carefully.

If a Personal health and safety crew members on board a gas carrierteam member has doubts about any instruction or operation, he should not hesitate to give his opinion to his superior.

Cargo operation plan.

Cargo operation plan
Fig. 3 The plan cargo handling work

The cargo handling work is mainly divided into the two stages of preparations and implementation described below.

Evaluation of cargo handling work

Before starting any project, the person managing the project should be fully aware of the risks associated with each task in the project. Risks such as these are to be studied and investigated during the evaluation stage when the Cargo operation plan is prepared.

The evaluation is considered to be the most important part of the preparations for cargo handling work. This is because information is collected from all quarters during this evaluation stage, and the foundation for the plan is laid.

Source of information for cargo operation plan

Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling (discharging/loading port)/Terminal regulations, etc. (discharging/loading port). Cargo handling work in LNG ships is implemented with the cooperation of the shore personnel. The Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling include various topics that have been agreed upon by the shore personnel such as manual for cargo handling standards, general rules, general points to be adhered to, arrangement of mooring lines, points to be adhered to during rough weather, response during emergency situation and so on.

The Cargo Handling Manual agreed upon by the shore personnel is a standard manual that includes topics such as tasks performed by shore personnel, tasks to be performed by the ship’s personnel, items to be communicated between ship and shore and so on, which are written in an easy to understand manner.

Ship/Shore Confirmation List. This is a confirmation document for ship/shore and includes specifications of shore side facilities and cargo handling equipment.

Loading Arm over Moving Area:

  • contains description of allowable operating range of arm;
  • ESD-1 working area;
  • ESD-2 working area.

ESDS system: Contains description of signaling equipment available on the shore side and used in the ship-shore ESDS Link.

On-board Custody Transfer Operation Procedures. Appropriate decimal points and units for Level, Volume, Temperature, and Pressure should be decided according to the Measurement Procedures. The Calculating Procedures include the detailed calculating procedures and so on in the event of a CTMS breakdown. Masters and other relevant cargo handling personnel (the person on cargo watch) are required to read these procedures carefully and be familiar with them.

Finished plans and documents. Important and essential information on cargo handling work is described in the items below, which form part of finished plans and documents related to cargo and supplied by the shipbuilder:

  • cargo piping diagram;
  • cargo handling manual;
  • ship/shore interface plan.

Special books and guides. The latest versions of the following published by SIGTTO and ICS serve as useful references:

  • Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ship and in Terminal: (SIGTTO);
  • Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas): (ICS).

SMS Manual. The following are specified as procedures related to cargo handling of LNG ships in the SMS Manual.

Safe Operation:

  • «Gas carrier».
  • «Cargo pumps and spray pumps operation».
  • «Cargo Handling Emergency response (Gas carriers)».

Safety and Health Onboard:

  • «Fire/explosion Prevention».

Emergency Casualty Response:

  • «Liquefied Gas Leak/Spill».

Procedures (Cargo Handling Checklist). Shipboard procedures such as loading check sheet and discharging check sheet used on the ship have been prepared to enable operation and recording in time series the various operations on the ship and timings of communications with the shore, based on Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling.

The said check sheets should enable work procedures performed on the ship to be entered easily and enable checks of records of time and various procedures to be made, in addition to being used as checklists.

The check sheet should also take into account the transfer of times of each task to the Port Log.

Cargo tank level table for loading/discharging. These tables are used to adjust the balance in each tank from operations at full rate. By adjusting the balance of each tank according to the correctly planned Gas Freeing of Cargo Tanks on Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers cargo tank level table for loading/discharging, the rate down can be performed safely and smoothly. The cargo tank level for discharging is prepared considering the departure heel described below (Stop levels of heel tanks and Non-Heel tanks).

Departure heel. To ready for the loading conditions (equator temperature of cargo tanks, etc.), the tank cool down work is performed during ballast voyages. The required heel is ensured at the discharging port during the tank cool down work. The departure heel is decided by calculation methods determined beforehand for each project.

Work instructions. Work instructions contain useful information such as cargo handling procedures, response during ESDS activation, response during a blackout as part of the common work instructions for each ship. These work instructions should be provided at a convenient location in the CCR so that they can be checked whenever necessary.

Cargo console. The cargo console is used for monitoring cargo handling conditions such as tank liquid level, tank pressure, tank temperature, various valve opening/closing conditions, line configurations, and operating conditions of cargo equipment.

Operating conditions of cargo equipment. Operating conditions need to be periodically checked on the CCR and on site during operation of cargo pumps, spray pumps, and H/D compressor. The start and stop of these items of cargo equipment should be carefully monitored.

Status reports. Detailed status on site, which cannot be known from the CCR, can be known by receiving status reports from site enabling the status on site to be confirmed in depth.

Tension monitor. Maintains tension of mooring lines in the appropriate range, and is also a useful source of information to prevent movement of the ship.

Ballasting work plan. Ballasting work is generally performed in parallel with cargo handling work, and is essential for adjusting draft and maintaining the ship’s trim and list.

The ballasting work plan includes not only levels of each tank at start and completion of ballasting work, but also the planned values of each tank level when cargo handling work is in progress (liquid level of cargo tank when ship passes the equator). It enables the progress of ballasting work compared to cargo handling work to be checked.

Ballast console. The trim and list of the ship during cargo handling work should be maintained upright (max. list 0,5°) as far as possible, with maximum trim within 1,0 m B/S or 1,0 m B/H. The trim gauge, heel gauge, and the draft gauge give useful information to check the ship’s trim and list.

Close communications should be maintained between Deck and Engineering Departments to prevent heeling of the ship when changing over the receiving tank during replenishing of fuel oil.

Common language. A common language should be used during shipboard communications so that the status of progress of work can be understood by all workers.

Company instructions. Overviews of cargo handling problems and near misses that occurred in the past, and measures to prevent recurrences are described. These instructions are given to all ships as feedback to prevent recurrences.

Weather information. During meetings before the cargo-handling work at Japanese terminals, explanations on point weather forecasts and information will be offered by the berth master when the ship is berthed. This information is particularly used to notify cargo handling supervisors when the weather is expected to deteriorate.

Other information sources. As far as possible, information from the terminal and other relevant cargo handling personnel should be considered. This includes, for instance, restrictions on cargo handling equipment at the terminal (for example, two-arm loading, two-arm discharging), information on cargo handling problems with other ships that occurred at the said terminal, and so on.

Individual experiences. Individual experiences such as experience of near misses, experience of problems related to cargo handling, characteristics specific to the ship, information specific to terminals visited by the individual, serve as valuable reference for safe cargo handling work.

Booklet for Cargo Operation. This is a booklet used in cargo handling meetings meant for persons on cargo work watch. It gives general information and precautions related to cargo handling, and the most essential explanations for persons on cargo work watch during cargo handling meetings.

Identification of risks during cargo handling work

Risks on account of human errors during cargo handling work, such as problems and near misses that have occurred in the past during cargo handling work were identified.

The evaluation standards for the level of influence accompanying risks given in the table below, are given here.

Evaluation standards for level of influence accompanying risks:

  • Low: no delay in cargo handling. No physical damage.
  • Medium: slight delay in cargo handling. Damage to hull and hull structure.
  • High: off-hire occurs. Damage to terminal equipment. Human casualties occur.
After berthing to initial gauging
Work itemsCause of ErrorInfluence of ErrorRisk (Level of
influence)
Cable connection (Cable handling)Rough handlingCoupler damagedHigh
Excessive bend in optical fiber cable
(r < 15 cm)
Optical fiber cut. Suspension of ESDS signals, ship-shore communicationsHigh
Shore Ladder InstallationLack of appropriate signsShore ladder damagedHigh
Ship structure damagedMedium
Loading and unloading of ship’s storesDelivery of gas (pressure drop) started before crane stowageConflict of procedure (Manual agreed to by ship and shore)Low
Arm connectionPositioning of crew member inappropriateHuman injuryHigh
Initial gaugingCalculation procedure during CTMS fault not understood properlyLoss of trust of surveyor, shipperLow

 

Initial gauging to cooling down of arm
Work itemsCause of ErrorInfluence of ErrorRisk (Level of
influence)
ESDS trip test (Hot condition)Tank pressure not checkedWhen tank pressure is high Tank protection system activates (Gas discharges from No. 1 vent)High
Tank pressure dropDelay in startWhen tank pressure is high Tank protection system activates (Gas discharges from No. 1 vent)High
Configuration of arm cooling-down lineError in valve operationLNG inflow to shore armHigh
Cooling down of armArm cooling down valve throttled excessivelySpray Pump Trip (Low Current)Low

 

Completion of cooling down of arm to full rate
Work itemsCause of ErrorInfluence of ErrorRisk (Level of
influence)
ESDS trip test (cold condition)Check for insertion of ERC safety pin forgottenERC separation, LNG dispersion. Human injuryHigh
Configuration of Loading/discharging lineMultiple remote valves operated simultaneously* (up to two valves can be operated simultaneously)ESDS activated due to drop in oil pressure of hydro unitMedium
Cargo pump startInadequate monitoring. On-site report inadequateDamage to pumpHigh
RGB start (during discharging only)Delay in application. Gas intermediate valve not fully openTank pressure drop, rate up delayed, ESDS activatedMedium
Note. If multiple large-bore remote valves are opened/closed simultaneously, it is likely that the oilpressure in the hydro unit will drop and cause ESD activation. Reference: ESD activates because of the low pressure of hydraulic oil accumulated in the accumulator for activating ESD valve.

 

During operations at full rate
Work itemsErrorInfluence of ErrorRisk (Level of
influence)
Rate adjustmentLarge change in rateEffect on samplingLow
Excessive load adjustment of pumpTripping of pumpMedium
Adjustment of balance of each tankLarge difference in cargo loading/discharging tablesChange in the cargo loading/discharging sequence. Causes confusion among operatorsLow
Ballasting workHeeling of shipShore ladder damagedHigh
ESDS activation, cargo handling suspendedHigh
Adjustment of mooring linesShip shiftedESDS activation, cargo handling suspendedMedium

 

Rate down to draining
Work itemsErrorInfluence of ErrorRisk (Level of
influence)
Rate-downDelay in load adjustment of pumpTripping of pump due to over current, causing discharging cargo to remainMedium
Completion of loadingDelay in stop order. Excessive loadingEstimated loading volume exceeded (Auto Close activated)Medium
Completion of dischargingExcessive throttling of discharge valve of pumpPump has tripped (discharging incomplete)High
Pump stop level overlookedPump bearing damageHigh
RGB stopVery early requestTank pressure drop, hunchingLow
Timing delayedTank pressure riseLow
Liquid seal removedSealing of liquid in liquid lineCargo valve, pipe damagedMedium

 

Draining completion to arm disconnection
Work itemsErrorInfluence of ErrorRisk (Level of
influence)
Final gaugingCalculation procedure during CTMS fault not understood properlyLoss of trust of surveyor, shipperLow
Arm disconnectionPositioning of crew member inappropriateHuman injuryHigh

 

Arm disconnection to de-berthing
Work itemsErrorInfluence of ErrorRisk (Level of
influence)
Strainer removalHandling errorArm flange face damagedHigh
Communication cable disconnectedRough handlingCoupling damagedHigh
Excessive bend in optical fiber cable
(r < 15 cm)
Optical fiber cut. Suspension of ESDS signals, ship-shore communicationsHigh
Shore ladder removalLack of appropriate signsShore ladder damagedHigh
Ship structure damagedMedium

Plan formulation

It is important to formulate a meticulous plan before performing cargo handling work, and to ensure consistency in the policies of all persons on cargo work watch. Here, «Preparations beforehand» is described in detail.

Establishing the Cargo operation plan

To establish the Cargo operation plan, the information on various items described in the «Loading Operation Plan» and the «Discharging Operation Plan» is collected, and the relevant forms are completed.

Procedures. Since the cargo handling work of an LNG ship is implemented jointly by the ship and the shore personnel, procedures used on the ship such as «Loading cargo work Check Sheet» and «Discharging cargo work Check Sheet» are prepared according to the cargo-handling procedures of «Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling» of each project, agreed upon by both ship and shore personnel.

These procedures summarize in a simple manner the work procedures on the ship so that the cargo handling work can be performed jointly by both shore and ship sides with care to ensure that there are no deviations from the procedures.

Consequently, the cargo handling procedures should be reviewed during the de-briefing after the operation is completed, revised if necessary, and maintained in the latest, updated condition.

Rate up/Rate down («Ramp up/Ramp down sequence»). Prepare the «Ramp up/Ramp down sequence» during loading and discharging. The sequence should be prepared based on the information on the rate allowed by the terminal, and the time interval of rate up and rate down, since this interval varies. The sequence should be described in the Loading/Discharging Operation Plan also. The «Ramp up/Ramp down sequence» should be checked during the discussion with the terminal side before cargo handling work, and the agreement of the terminal side should be obtained.

Full rate. Full rate is decided based on the restrictions on pumping capacity and allowable receiving rate of each terminal, and allowable receiving rate and pumping capacity on the ship side. The full rate of each terminal is established for each project. The full rate should also be mentioned in the Loading/Discharging Operation Plan.

The rate should be maintained at a constant value because the LNG composition is sampled during full rate.

Ballasting. During ballasting work, the hull strength and the upright/even-keel position of the ship should be considered, and the Ballasting Plan should be formulated using the specified form such that the ballasting work is completed during operations at full rate. Ballast tanks scheduled for internal inspection should be checked, and heel adjusting tanks as well as trim adjusting tanks should be clearly identified beforehand.

Suspension of plan and emergency response. If the plan is suspended, that is, if cargo handling work is suspended, it is vital to make all-out efforts to restart the cargo handling work within the bounds of safety.

Files for Contingency Plans for Liquefied Natural Gas CarrierShip Contingency Plan including common Work Instructions such as «Response Procedures during Blackout» and «Response Procedures during ESDS Activation» should be maintained in the CCR so that they can be used immediately as part of the emergency response procedure.

Recording. The recording forms listed below and used during cargo handling work should be kept ready.

1 Loading port:

  • Loading Operation Checklist (Procedures).
  • LNG Cargo Loading/Discharging Log (Loading port).
  • LNG Cargo Loading Log (Discharging port).
  • Tension Monitoring Record.
  • Ballasting Record.
  • Float Gauge Level Measurement Record.

2 Discharging port:

  • Discharging Operation Checklist (Procedures).
  • LNG Cargo Loading/Discharging Log (Loading port).
  • LNG Cargo Discharging Log (Discharging port).
  • Tension Monitoring Record.
  • Ballasting Record.
  • Float Gauge Level Measurement Record.

Measurement:

  • Not only in passage/cargo work, the settings of CTMS (Measurement System) should not be changed without permission from the company, except in the following two cases:
  1. The Port, Cargo No., Chief Officer’s name, and so on that are usually entered.
  2. In cargo work, after following the operation procedures, the change is still required under the agreement of the relevant ship/shore cargo work personnel.
  • Before Measurement (before initial gauging and final gauging), check the Name of ship, Date, Time, Port, Cargo No., and Chief officer’s name. In addition, follow the operation procedures and check the operating status of the measurement system on the CRT (on the CTMS screen), for example, Level, Volume, Temperature, Appropriate decimal place and unit, and so on.
  • Masters and other relevant cargo-handling personnel (the person on cargo watch) are required to carefully read each procedure (cargo handling procedures and measurement procedures) and be familiar with them.

Additional information. Information related to cargo handling obtained through discussions with the terminal side after the ship enters port should be notified to the person on cargo work watch by entering it (pasting) as precautions in the Cargo Work Notebook.

The following additional information can be indicated in the Cargo operation plan:

  • Security level during anchorage.
  • Visitors.
  • Work during anchorage (work likely to affect cargo handling is prohibited).
  • Other work scheduled during anchorage.

Condition awareness. Correct condition awareness at all times is indispensable for the accomplishment of safe cargo handling work.

Key points for correct awareness of the situation:

  1. If you find something’s not right, don’t ignore it.
  2. Avoid and eliminate wrong impressions, preconceptions, and wishful thinking.
  3. If you recognize a problem, analyze and understand the factors that have contributed to the problem.

Information. Documents prepared in the CCR before performing cargo handling work and useful as information for such work are as given below:

  • Safety Checklist (only for terminals where preparations by the ship are required).
  • Loading Operation Plan (only at loading port).
  • Discharging Operation Plan (only at discharging port).
  • Booklet for Cargo Operation.
  • Checklist for Liquefied Gas Carriers (No. 1 & 2) (Ver. 2.3).
  • Cargo Log.
  • Loading Arm Over Moving Area.
  • Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling/Terminal Regulations, etc.
  • Recording forms entered (see above).
  • Weather information.
  • Cargo Work Notebook (including instructions to watch-keeper on CCR).
  • Other useful information.

The documents listed below should be maintained in the CCR such that they can be used immediately when required:

  • Ship/Shore Confirmation List.
  • Cargo Operation Manual.
  • Contingency Plan.

Approval and changes to Cargo operation plan:

  1. Master’s approval. After preparing the Cargo operation plan, it should be submitted to the Master for approval.
  2. Changes in the Cargo operation plan. If the Cargo operation plan is to be changed, that is, if the work cannot be started on schedule, or if the cargo handling work has been suspended, the charterer and the manager in charge of operations should be notified without delay. Subsequently, discussions should be held on measures to be taken with the terminal and other related personnel, and measures adopted.

Implementation of the Cargo operation plan

Implementation of the Cargo operation plan refers to implementation of cargo handling work. Further details of cargo handling work are given below. «Monitoring cargo handling work» below. Here, guidelines for implementing cargo handling work according to the plan are summarized.

Holding briefings

Briefing should be held for ensuring that guidelines are followed consistently by all persons on cargo work watch during the meeting before the cargo handling work and for performing simulation (when key personnel performing cargo handling work change) mainly for key personnel (C/O, 1/O, G/E, 2/O) related to cargo handling work.

Meeting before cargo handling work. During the meeting before the cargo handling work, the important points of the Cargo operation plan should be explained to all concerned personnel using:

  • the Discharging/Loading Operation Plan;
  • the Ballasting Plan;
  • the Booklet for Cargo Operation.

Simulation. The following should be implemented by all the key personnel related to cargo-handling work in line with the procedures when the key personnel (C/O, 1/O, G/E, 2/O) change:

  • Hold careful discussions on procedures for loading/discharging cargo (from the start of cooling down of line to winding up of the float) based on the latest checklists.
  • Perform simulation assuming actual cargo handling work from the front panel of the console.
  • The C/O should explain the precautions during cargo handling work, and clear up the doubts of all persons during the discussions.
  • Ensure that all cargo handling operators understand the positions of valves to be operated on site, and always check the piping as well as the valves that need to be operated with care on site.
  • Understand associated operations (operations before and after any operation should be linked) during cargo handling work, and the cause and effect relationships (changes in liquid in the line on account of valve operation).
  • Take up instances of problems that occurred in the past and check measures to prevent recurrence.
  • Use appended documents (case studies, cargo handling problems).
  • The C/O should confirm that all relevant personnel are using the latest checklists.

Instructions by the Master. The Master shall give instructions to the crewmembers during the cargo handling work meeting before the ship enters port to be mentally ready for cargo handling work and avoid carelessness in their mannerism during work.

The Master should listen to the transceiver from the start of cargo handling work to the full rate condition. If any problem occurs, the Master should take over command for measures and response.

Assignment of roles

Table shows the established assignment of roles for officers performing cargo handling work.

Assignment of roles (example)
Supervisor/StationRole
MasterShipboard command when problem occurs
Listening to ship’s transceiver (until operations in full rate is restored)
Chief Officer (C/O) CCRIn charge of cargo operation and monitoring the entire cargo handling work
Conduct cargo handling work according to the checklists
Practically check the console lines (main)
Operation during CTM
Communications with shore: Important items (main); standard items (auxiliary)
Operation of cargo handling equipment in CCR (when G/E is absent from CCR), communications with Engine Department
The C/O should consider the skills and the experience of the 1/O, and if necessary, perform the cargo handling operation himself
First Officer (1/O) CCROperation of CCR console based on the instructions of the responsibility person of cargo operation (cargo handling work progress)
Report to the responsibility person of cargo operation
Practically check the console lines (auxiliary)
Communications between CCR and Deck (use ship’s transceiver) (main)
Communications with shore: Important items (auxiliary); standard items* (main)
Start/stop of cargo pump (main); start stop of spray pump (main)
Monitor tank pressure (assist start/stop of RGB)
Monitor liquid level
Operation of cargo-handling equipment in the CCR (when G/E is absent from the CCR), communications with Engine Department
Junior First Engineer (G/E) CCROperation of CCR console based on the instructions of the responsibility person of cargo operation (cargo handling work progress)
Gas compressor operation and communication with the Engine Department
Communication with gas oiler and monitoring of liquid levels
Monitoring the status and operation of cargo-handling equipment and CTS operation (alarm reset, etc.)
Start/stop of cargo pump (auxiliary), start/stop of spray pump (auxiliary)
Recording time (main)
Give advice if deviation from the checklist procedure occurs (main)
Second Officer (2/O) ManifoldResponsibility for work at the manifold
Double checks using the 2/O handbook (Report if the procedure differs from the normal procedure)
Report on work status to CCR
Third Officer (3/O) CCR/Manifold Dome side. When stationed in CCR (stations not fixed considering OJT)Recording time (main/auxiliary)
Communication with shore «standard items»* (Main/auxiliary)
Communications between CCR and Deck (use ship’s transceiver) (main/auxiliary)
Give advice if deviation from the checklist procedure occurs (auxiliary)
Superintendent (SI) (If applicable) Mainly CCRCheck and give advice on the status of CCR TM functions. Attendance at CTM (Checking number, Cargo number, and so on). Monitor the following tasks:
  • checking the configuration of arm cooling-down line (performed before starting spray pump);
  • configuring the discharging line (check before opening the double-shut valve);
  • rate down (Load adjustments of all pumps before slow down, load status of adjustments after stopping each pump);
  • liquid seal removed after cargo handling work completed.
Note. The person in charge of communicating «standard items» with the shore varies depending on the language used. (Limited to Japanese, etc.)
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If the assignment does not suit the existing situation because of the status of installation of cargo handling equipment in each ship, then the assignment of tasks should be prescribed separately using Work Instructions based on table above, so that there is no departure from the «Shipboard Organization, Supplement to the Shipboard Organization (LNG Carrier)», «Shipboard Responsibility and Duty, Standard Duties (LNG carriers) of the SMS Manual», and «LNG Instructions Ref. No.: 02. DUTY/-/004 «Work Management on LNG Ships» (Dated 2006-6-1)».

Work level and personnel needed. To perform cargo handling work safely, risk management and stationing of appropriate personnel are necessary. Between berthing and de-berthing of the ship, the personnel required for various tasks during cargo handling work vary. The standard minimum required personnel for each step of the each task is given in table.

Standard Minimum required personnel and work level at each work step
Moss Type LNG Carrier
Work stepCCRManifoldDomeLevel
After berthing to initial gauging2 persons1 + 4 persons2
Initial gauging to start of cooling down of arm3 persons1 + 4 persons3
During cooling down of arm1 person1 person1 person1
Completion of cooling down of arm to full rate3 persons1 + 4 persons
(1 + 3 persons) ships with 4 tanks
3
During operations at full rate2 persons*1 person2 persons2
15 minutes before rate down to start of draining3 persons1 + 4 persons
(1 + 3 persons) ships with 4 tanks
3
Draining completion to arm disconnection2 persons1 + 4 persons2
Arm disconnection to de-berthing1 person(Gangway watch)1
Membrane Type LNG Carrier
After berthing to initial gauging2 persons1 + 3 persons2
Initial gauging to start of cooling down of arm3 persons1 + 3 persons3
During cooling down of arm1 person1 person1 person1
Completion of cooling down of arm to full rate3 persons1 + 3 persons3
During operations at full rate2 persons*1 person2 persons2
15 minutes before rate down to start of draining3 persons1 + 3 persons3
Draining completion to arm disconnection2 persons1 + 4 persons2
Arm disconnection to de-berthing1 person(Gangway watch)1
Note. Indicates the number of persons required when an officer performs the ballasting work
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A cargo work watch in each terminal should be stationed according to this table, unless it interferes with the below.

And the work level is set considering the steps for each task:

  • Work level 1: supervision during arm cooling down and after the completion of cargo handling work (arm disconnected).
  • Work level 2: supervision during preparations for cargo handling work after berthing and during operations at full rate.
  • Work level 3: monitoring of line configuration, start and stop of cargo equipment, rate up, and the rate down, satisfactory communications between ship and shore is the most essential work step.

The division of work steps shown in table above is an approximation. Considering the next task to be performed, the workers may be re-assigned to different stations beforehand, such as stationing workers at the manifold before initial gauging to stationing them at the dome, and so on.

If a problem occurs, and if cargo operation cannot be immediately started, a minimum allocation for cargo work watch for labor management and risk management should be established, a shift system set up and time off should be given to some of the workers so that continuous long period of labor is prevented.

The stationing of supervisory personnel falls under the scope of the Master’s discretion, and there should be no hesitation in prolonging or removing the supervisory duty, if the situation warrants.

Exhaustion and Adherence to law. To maintain an appropriate ability to make judgments during supervision, control of one’s physical condition and control of fatigue are essential. The maximum working hours (14 hours per day/72 hours per week) provided by Seamen’s Law (Japanese flag vessel), STCW and the ILO Convention are to be adhered to.

Before the cargo handling work, the Master should consider and manage the exhaustion levels of the crewmembers. To ensure physical fitness of a limited number of persons, rest periods should be assigned to the relevant persons.

Furthermore, the cargo work watch system should be planned and the cargo handling work schedule established such that a long-period work is not generated continuously, considering that the concentration ability degrades with exhaustion.

Preparations for cargo handling work

Preparations for cargo handling work. One of the basic principles of control to perform the work mentioned below is to properly prepare and keep ready the work locations. This is normally the duty of the officer and the engineer in charge of cargo.

Preparatory work. Preparatory work can be implemented correctly by using checklists. The work should be performed according to the Checklist for Liquefied Gas Carriers (No. 1) (Ver. 2.3) and the Checklist for Cargo Handling Preparations before Entering Port prepared by the ship.

However, to prevent incomplete work, it is important to affix marks on the checklists only after confirming that all the work has actually been completed.

Teamwork

To perform work safely in the high work-level status (work steps), it is very important that the monitoring system is reinforced and continuous monitoring be performed by the team. The CCR team members in the CCR Team Management and the precautions during supervision of cargo handling work are established in detail and the specific roles of the members are summarized here.

Cargo watch

Watch during operations at full rate. The system of two persons on cargo watch in the CCR is used during operations at full rate including ballasting work. These persons have complete responsibility for safety during all cargo operations.

The persons on cargo work watch should perform their duties based on the detailed instructions from the C/O and the relevant regulations.

The Master should confirm that the persons on cargo work watch maintain a fixed level as expected of such persons. After considering the skills of the person, if the Master deems that a fixed level has not been reached by the person on cargo work watch, he should take measures, such as adding his superior to the work. If two officers are used, then the combination should be a beginner and an experienced officer. The G/E may also be made to perform the work of a cargo handling supervisor.

A person in charge of ballasting, in principle, performs only ballasting work. However, if deemed necessary, the person on cargo work watch after considering the status of the ballasting work, may ask the ballast worker to assist in recording the tension in the mooring lines displayed on the tension monitor, or assist in taking the float readings.

Cargo watch above work level 2. For tasks below in which several watches are stationed, especially the work steps equivalent to level 3 work (1 to 3), every watch should fulfill his duties with responsibility without depending on others, based on the established assignment of roles in each ship and based on table «Assignment of roles».

However, the stations and the roles may be interchanged for the purpose of education, if required:

  1. Initial gauging to start of cooling down of arm.
  2. Completion of cooling down of arm to full rate.
  3. 15 minutes before the rate down to start of draining.
  4. At final gauging.

Specific roles of CCR team members

The specific roles of each member, including the:

  • team leader;
  • implementers;
  • recording personnel;
  • backup personnel;
  • manifold in charge,

who form part of the CCR team are as below, for effective implementation of CCR-TM.

The Superintendent is also a member of the team.

To implement the concept of CCR-TM, the procedures shown in fig. 4 should be followed for every task by teamwork in work level 3.

The roles of CCR team
Fig. 4 Specific roles of CCR team members

Considering that 3/O should not be fixed for the CCR station with the aim of OJT, the tasks in CCR are entered taking the C/O as leader, 1/O as implementer, and G/E as recording person. This assignment of roles is considered to be ideal, but depending on the skills or the condition of members, appropriate and detailed assignment of roles should be performed when required based on the examples of the assignment of roles shown in table «Assignment of roles», and the scope of responsibility of each member should be clearly defined.

Team leader. To verify whether the cargo handling work is being performed according to the procedures or not, the team leader should carry out checks according to the cargo handling checklist. If he finds any deviations, he should make corrections immediately.

The team leader should also give permission for implementation for notice of instructions to the site and operations of the implementer, and if necessary, make corrections.

Implementer. The implementer should give instructions for operating the remote valve at the CCR and instructions from the CCR to the site for operating valves, and Use of Cargo Pumps on Liquefied Gas Carriersstart/stop the pumps.

The implementer should notify the team leader beforehand on the operation and instructions to the site.

The implementer, in principle, should be the 1/O.

The 1/O should progress with cargo handling work based on the instructions of the C/O, and has the duty of reporting the results.

However, the C/O should consider the skills and experience of the 1/O, and if deemed necessary, should perform the cargo handling operation himself.
If the C/O himself performs the cargo handling operation, he should inform the relevant operation to all the persons in the CCR.

Recording personnel. The recording personnel should record the times in each step of the cargo handling work, based on the cargo handling checklist.

He should also communicate the standard items such as start/stop times of pump to the shore side.

The 3/O should act as the recording personnel in the absence of the G/E from the CCR.

Backup. Backup refers to the work performed by three persons – the operator, team leader and recording person, or the persons who offer assistance as a team when the monitoring system is inadequate.

Under such circumstances, the team leader should request the 3/O for backup assistance without hesitation.

If the G/E is absent from the CCR when the gas compressor is to be started, other CCR team members should be able to operate cargo equipment and cargo handling equipment instead of the G/E from the CCR as backup during cargo handling work; therefore, they should be familiar with the operation of these items of equipment.

Person in charge of the manifold. The 2/O, in charge of the manifold, should give instructions to the shipside workers, and should strive to understand the overall operation, checking whether the workers are stationed at dangerous positions, whether wrong valve operation has been performed, and so on, based on the support from the CCR and the 2/O handbook in which the Work Instructions are documented.

The 2/O should also report the progress status of manifold work and changes in the status around the manifold (pressure, frosting, liquid leakage, gas leakage, abnormal noise, etc.) to the CCR.

Superintendent (SI). The SI of the ship should check the implementation status of CCR-TM during the transition stage from the CCR from the cargo handling meeting to operation at full rate, and during the rate down work. As a member of the team, the SI should check the configuration of the:

  • attendance at CTM;
  • cooling-down line, period of operation of arm cooling down valves;
  • liquid levels of various tanks during rate down;
  • the status of load adjustments of the cargo pump.

If the cargo handling procedure deviates from the normal and there is a likelihood of operation error to be made, the SI should immediately stop the work, and should make sure that the members check the procedure.

Monitoring the cargo handling work

The aim of CCR-TM is to prevent errors as far as possible. The system for strengthening the monitoring during cargo handling work is as mentioned earlier. Here, specific guidelines of the monitoring system by teamwork in with CCR-TM are shown, and actual examples are given «Condition awareness» below.

The existence of errors may be detected oneself or detected by «other persons». Human resources at CCR, that is, other persons are used in CCR-TM, and the monitoring system is strengthened by error discovery because of monitoring by many persons.

1 Cases of self-error detection:

2 Cases where error is detected by other persons:

Problem-solving approach:

  • Several persons should check one task. Continuous monitoring by team work.
  • Operation: establish system of receiving proper responses, reports (marine concepts), and the system of calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions.
  • Communications: give proper instructions and reports. Do not omit valve numbers in reports or responses during valve operations.

Adhering to procedures:

  • Adhere to the manuals agreed upon between ship and shore personnel, such as, Standard Guidelines for Cargo Handling.
  • All members should use the latest (same) checklists. The use of the different checklists or checklists made by adding entries personally to the wrong procedures is prohibited.
  • Officers designated in the table of assignment of roles should start/stop pumps. Officers working under the designated officer may operate the pumps under the supervision of the designated officer.
  • Communications and reports to shore side should be made appropriately.
  • Cargo loading and cargo discharging tables should be correctly used.

Sharing information:

  • Common language used on board the ship should be used for communications between CCR and site.
  • The person in charge (of recording) should read out the remaining levels as appropriate.
  • If error is detected or a doubt exists, opinion should be given.

Condition awareness

To detect errors (causes of accident), awareness (recognition) is essential. Deviation from the original status (error) can be detected by condition awareness, that is, by grasping the status at all times.

Precautions for condition observation:

  1. Even if mistakes are made, there is no awareness because of «non-enlightenment» or «ignorance». This is often observed in beginners.
  2. Experienced personnel may commit mistakes when their concentration drops because of «overconfidence», «overestimation», or «exhaustion».
  3. If the leader is very experienced, and even if he issues wrong instructions, people working under him tend to accept his instructions without question (without having doubts).

Loading cargo work. Precautions for mitigating risk in work with potential risks during loading work from the time of berthing to un-berthing of the ship are given below. Practical examples of team leader, person implementing the work, person recording the work, person in charge of manifold, and SI in various aspects of work by the CCR team (work level 3), are also given.

1 Cable connection.

In terminals using optical fiber system, the officer in charge should take care (monitor) that the coupler does not come in strong contact with the hull or the handrail when the optical fiber cable is received from shore.

The said cable should not be bent to a diameter smaller than 15 cm. Special care is necessary when lashing it to the handrail. And, cotton gloves should not be used for the connection.

Ships that carry special securing fittings (with roller guides) should use such fittings.

2 Installation of shore ladder.

If the CCR watch shuts the main steam valve in the ECR, the watch should immediately notify the CCR. The attending officer should check that the main steam valve is closed (auto spin cut) in the CCR before installation of the shore ladder.

The attending officer should give clear-cut signals to the operator on the shore side to guide the shore ladder to the specified installation position.

3 Loading provisions.

To load provisions using a crane, another person apart from the crane operation should be stationed all the time to monitor the loading work.

When the crane is stowed at its home position, the worker should report the completion of loading work, and the person in charge of the CCR should confirm that the crane has been stowed before starting the gas delivery to the shore.

4 Arm connection.

The 2/O should confirm that crewmembers and shore workers are not standing at dangerous positions near the arm during arm disconnection. If they are, then he should move them from the dangerous position to a safe location.

5 CTMS before loading.

Before initial gauging, check:

  • name of ship,
  • date,
  • time,
  • port,
  • cargo no.,
  • chief officer’s name,
  • other such essential items.

In addition, follow operation procedures and check the operating status of the measurement system on the CRT (on the CTMS screen), for example:

  • level,
  • volume,
  • temperature,
  • appropriate decimal place and unit, and so on.

During measurement, collate input settings with a shore measurement attendant.

6 ESDS trip test.

The 2/O should confirm before the test that the ERC safety pin has been inserted in the test position. (The ESD-2 operation test (ERC disconnection) is not supposed to be carried out, but there have been cases where it has been carried out by mistake by the shore operator. See LNG Instructions Ref. No.: 05. OPE/C/010).

7 Line configuration of arm cooling-down.

The arm cooling should be implemented after notifying the shore side to perform valve line-up, and after receiving approval from the shore side.

The team leader, person performing the work, and the person recording the work should perform the work during line configuration in the CCR while confirming the operation. At the manifold, the person in charge of the manifold should check the procedure. It should be noted carefully during valve operation that LNG exists in the piping of a ship in which line cooling down is performed before it enters port.

Practical example of CCR team members when opening/closing
manually-operated valves
Person in chargeBefore
implementation
ImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderPermission to operateCheck specifications of valve operationRe-check receipt of report
ImplementerNotificationSpecifications of valve operationChanging over open/close indicator (lamp) and report
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck specifications of valve operationTime recording
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck valve open/close condition, status reportValve open/close condition Report
SI (if SI visits ship at loading site)Check procedure and that calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions is being implemented, check marine concepts, and status of communications between ship and shore

 

Practical example of CCR team members when opening/closing
remotely-operated valves
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderPermission to operateCheck valve operationRe-check receipt of report
ImplementerNotificationValve operationCheck indication in open/close indicator, report
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck valve operationTime recording
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck valve open/close condition, status reportValve open/close condition Report
SI (if SI visits ship at loading site)Check procedure and that calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions is being implemented, check operating status, marine concepts, and status of communications between ship and shore

 

8 Checking line configuration.

The team leader should give instructions to all team members to check the line configuration and also check the same by himself at the timings mentioned below:

  1. For a ship in which spray line is used during the Arm cool down – perform the check before the arm cooling-down valve operation (request to transfer oil to the shore side).
  2. For a ship in which liquid line is used during the Arm cool down – perform the check before the double-shut valve operation.

9 Arm cool down.

Request the shore side to transfer the liquid at the specified rate. After starting the arm cooling down process, and immediately after LNG is transferred into the ship, the ship-shore connection at the manifold should be carefully monitored because leaks are like to occur at this location on account of unequal shrinkage of SDP and piping.

Care should be taken to tighten all bolts with equal force when the flanges are tightened after a leak occurs.

Actual example of CCR team members when a request to start cool-down
is made
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderCheck line configuration. Allow implementationCheck the content of communications between ship and shoreRe-check receipt of report
ImplementerNotify after checking line configurationRequest to start cool-down to shore sideStart cool-down, notify
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck start timeRecord the time
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck flow at manifold, frosting condition, and leaksStatus of flow at manifold, existence of frost or leak Report
SI (if SI visits ship at loading site)Check procedure and that calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions is being implemented, check marine concepts, and status of communications between ship and shore

 

10 ESDS trip test (cold condition).

The 2/O should confirm before the test that the ERC safety pin has been inserted in the test position. (ESD-2 operation test (ERC disconnection) is not supposed to be carried out, but sometimes the shore side operator may perform this test by mistake).

When cold, LNG may exist in the arm, and it may spurt out when the ERC is disconnected.

When the G/E is absent from the CCR on a ship, and preparations to operate the H/D compressor need to be made, a system should have been devised beforehand that enables other CCR-TM members to operate the ESDS reset (gas compressor) in the CCR, or raise the pressure in the pneumatic line.

11 Line configuration for loading.

Same as (6) above. To operate the large-bore remote hydraulic valves, such as the filling valves, up to two valves should be simultaneously operated considering the drop in pressure of the hydro unit (ESDS action).

The operator should be fully aware that LNG exists in the piping during valve operation. Particularly when opening double-shut valves, the valve should first be opened just a crack and the situation monitored.

12 Check line configuration.

The team leader should give instructions to all team members to check the line configuration and also check the same by himself at the timings mentioned below:

  1. For a ship in which spray line is used during the Arm cool down – perform the check before the double-shut valve operation.
  2. For a ship in which liquid line is used during the Arm cool down – perform the check before making the request to the shore side to transfer liquid.

13 Request to shore side to start pumping.

Before making the request to Ship/shore interface for safe loading and unloading of LNG/LPGthe shore side to start pumping, one or two H/D compressors should be operated if necessary, to prepare for the rise in tank pressure after loading starts, and care should be taken against changes in tank pressure immediately after loading starts.

The manifold on either side and all other parts of dome should be checked for leaks. A meticulous leak check is especially necessary during the first loading after the ship has departed from the dry-dock.

Actual example of CCR team members when a request to shore is made to start pumping
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderCheck line
configuration. Allow implementation
Check the content of communications between ship and shoreRe-check receipt of report. Check tank liquid level, X-over temperature, and pressure changes
ImplementerCheck line configuration. NotificationRequest shore to start transfer of liquidStart transfer of liquid, report. Check tank liquid level, X-over temperature, and pressure changes
Recording personnelCheck line configuration using checklist. Check proceduresCheck start timeTime recording, notice of rate increase scheduled time, communication one minute before
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck pressure change in manifold, existence of leakReport status of pressure change in manifold and existence of leak
SI (if SI visits ship at loading site)Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 

14 Rate up.

Before requesting a rate up, check should always be made to ensure that adequate margin in tank pressure, H/D compressor is operating correctly, and leak checks of all parts have been completed.

After rate up also, checks should be carried out when necessary, on the tank pressure, operating status of H/D compressor, and abnormalities such as leaks.

Actual example of CCR team members at the time of request for rate increase
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderCheck tank pressure. Allow implementationCheck the content of communications between ship and shoreRe-check receipt of report. Check tank liquid level, pressure, X-over temperature, and pressure changes
ImplementerCheck tank pressure. NotificationRequest shore to rate upStart transfer of liquid, report. Check tank liquid level, X-over temperature, and pressure changes
Recording
personnel
Check procedure, notification of rate up scheduled timing, communication one minute beforeCheck start timeTime recording, notification of next rate up scheduled timing, communication one minute before
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck pressure change in manifold, existence of leakReport status of pressure change in manifold and existence of leak
SI (if SI visits ship at loading site)Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 

15 Full Rate of loading.

Watch should be performed carefully of the items below during full rate of loading:

  • The CCR watch should concentrate on performing cargo watch. (Should not perform other administrative tasks).
  • Should monitor information continuously. (Loading rate, liquid level, tank pressure, line pressure, etc.). Should refer to data of past records such as Cargo Log, etc.
  • When the filling valve of one tank is to be closed so that the rate does not change excessively, the degree of opening of the filling valve of other tanks should be opened wide to perform rate adjustment considering the overall balance. If the filling valve is closed during operations at full rate, the manifold pressure (back pressure) should be monitored and adjustments made in the range in which the manifold pressure does not change (increase). Reference example: the average degree of opening of filling valve in all tanks should be greater than 80 %. For 5 tanks, a total greater than 400 % should be maintained.
  • After changing over to operations at full rate, the discharging table should be used and the balance in each tank adjusted. (For adjusting the degree of opening of the filling valve, refer to Loading Logs of the past). For level adjustment, the features and trends of the ship and the maintenance of rate should be considered, and the adjustment should be started at a timing such that it does not lead to large variation in the rate in the final stages of cargo handling.
  • Status of mooring lines, attitude of ship (trim/list), and weather should also be monitored at appropriate times.
  • If abnormality is found, or if there is a doubt, the C/O should be notified regardless of the time.

16 Rate down.

The operator in charge of reducing the rate should be notified 30 minutes before the rate down, and all crewmembers should be at their stations 15 minutes before the rate down.

Confirm that there is no abnormality in the communication procedures with the shore side before the start of rate down. (Example: if a transceiver is used, replace batteries and test that communication is satisfactory).

Also, carefully monitor the remaining level until the discharging of each tank.

In principle, additional loading of already loaded tanks should not be performed during rate down. However, if the contracted quantity is not likely to be reached, and if additional loading is to be carried out, crewmembers should always be stationed at the dome side to check the open/closed condition of the filling valve. Care should be taken to ensure that the filling valve is not excessively open (maximum 30 %), and precautions should be taken to check the level of the additional loading tank.

Actual example of CCR team members at the time of request for rate down
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderStart rate down. Check level. Check that filling valves except those in the first loading tank are fully open. Allow implementationCheck the content of communications between ship and shoreRe-check receipt of report. Check the change in X-over pressure
ImplementerStart rate down. Check level. Check that filling valves except those in the first loading tank are fully open. NotificationRequest shore to rate downRate dowm start, report. Check the change in
X-over pressure
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck start timeTime recording, notification of level remaining until the start of the next rate down
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck manifold pressure change, pulsationReport status of existence of manifold pressure change, pulsation
SI (if SI visits ship at loading site)Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 

17 Completion of loading.

Due to a small delay in timing or a difference in the communications between the ship and shore when loading is completed, the timing of the order to stop the pump on the shore side may be delayed, the inflow of LNG may not stop although the level of completion of loading is reached.

For this reason, always inspect the communication equipment between ship and shore 2 to 3 minutes before the stop order, and simultaneously, request the shore side to make preparations to stop the last pump. The stop order should be given by the C/O himself.

The preparations for changeover to other tanks and ESDS operation should also be made at the same time (Generally, the filling valve of the last tank is kept fully open).

18 CTMS after loading.

As with CTMS before loading, check:

  • name of ship,
  • date,
  • time,
  • port,
  • cargo no.,
  • chief officer’s name,
  • other such essential items.

In addition, follow operation procedures and check the operating status of the measurement system on the CRT (on the CTMS screen), for example:

  • level,
  • volume,
  • temperature,
  • appropriate decimal place and unit, and so on.
Actual example of CCR team members at the time of issue of stop order
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderS/B request to shore side. Stop order. Check level. NotificationRequest to stop last pump to the shore sideCheck liquid level of loaded tank
ImplementerCheck stop order levelCheck the content of communications between ship and shorePump stop, report. Check X-over pressure change, load tank liquid level
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck order issue timing, stop timingRecord the time
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck proceduresCheck manifold pressure, stoppage of liquid flowReport the status of stoppage of liquid flow and existence of abnormality
SI (if SI visits ship at loading site)Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 
Discharging cargo work. Precautions for mitigating risk in work with potential risks during discharging work from the time of berthing to de-berthing of the ship, and practical examples of team leader, person implementing the work, person recording the work, person in charge of manifold, and SI in various aspects of work by the CCR team (work level 3) are given.

1 Cable connection.

The officer attending this work should take care to ensure that the coupler does not strike the handrails or the hull strongly when receiving the optical fiber cable from the shore.

The said cable should not be bent to a diameter smaller than 15 cm. Special care is necessary when lashing it to the handrail. Ships that carry special securing fittings (with roller guides) should use such fittings.

2 Installation of shore ladder.

If the CCR watch shuts the main steam valve in the ECR, the watch should immediately notify the CCR. The attending officer should check that the main steam valve is closed (auto spin cut) in the CCR before installation of the shore ladder.

The attending officer should give clear-cut signals to the operator on the shore side to guide the shore ladder to the specified installation position.

3 Loading and unloading ship’s stores.

Loading and unloading of ship’s stores should be performed after informing the terminal and obtaining permission to perform this work.

Besides the crane operator, persons should always be stationed to monitor the loading and unloading work.

This work should be completed before opening the ship’s vapor manifold ESD valve. Check should be made to confirm that the crane is stowed before the start of delivery of gas to shore. When the work is completed, always notify the terminal the completion of the work.

4 Arm connection.

The 2/O should monitor the entire work including stationing of crewmembers and communications between ship and shore.

During arm connection work, the 2/O should check that no crewmember or shore worker is standing near the arm or at a dangerous position, and move them to a safe location, if necessary.

5 CTMS before discharging.

Before initial gauging, check:

  • name of ship,
  • date,
  • time,
  • port,
  • cargo no.,
  • chief officer’s name, and other such essential items.

In addition, follow operation procedures and check the operating status of the measurement system on the CRT (on the CTMS screen), for example:

  • level,
  • volume,
  • temperature,
  • appropriate decimal place and unit, and so on.

During measurement, collate input settings with a shore measurement attendant.

6 ESDS trip test.

The 2/O should confirm before the test that the ERC safety pin has been inserted in the test position. (The ESD-2 operation test (ERC disconnection) is not supposed to be carried out, but there have been cases where it has been carried out by mistake by the shore operator. See LNG Instructions Ref. No.: 05. OPE/C/010).

7 Line configuration for arm cool down.

The arm cool down should be implemented after notifying the shore side to perform valve line-up, and after receiving approval from the shore side.

During the line configuration, the person implementing the work, the team leader and the person recording the work should confirm each operation in he CCR, while the person in charge of the manifold should confirm the work at the manifold.

The SI should check the status of deviation from the procedures, whether the operation is being performed while calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions, the status of marine concepts, and the communications between ship and shore.

Read also: Prevention rollover in LNG Tanks

If the cargo handling procedure deviates from the normal and there is a likelihood of operation error to occur, the SI should immediately stop the work, and should make sure that the members check the procedure.

Particularly, the C/O should check by himself the lines on the CCR console when the valve line-up is performed before the start of the discharging work and when the valve changeover is performed before the arm cool down.

If the 2/O in charge of the manifold work, notices after referring to the manifold handbook that the cargo handling work is being carried out by a procedure that deviates from the normal procedure, he should advise the CCR to confirm the procedure.

Also, the operator should be fully aware that LNG exists in the piping when performing the valve operation.

Practical example of CCR team members when opening/closing manually-operated valves
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderPermission to operateCheck specifications of valve operationRe-check receipt of report
ImplementerNotificationSpecifications of valve operationChangeover of open/close indicator, report
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck specifications of valve operationRecord the time
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck valve open/close condition, status reportValve open/close condition Report
SI Check procedure and that calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions is being implemented, check marine concepts, and status of communications between ship and shore, timing during operation of valve for cooling down arm

 

Practical example of CCR team members when opening/closing remotely-operated valves
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderPermission to operateCheck valve operationRe-check receipt of report
ImplementerNotificationValve operationCheck open/close indicator, report
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck valve operationRecord the time
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck valve open/close condition, status reportValve open/close condition Report
SI Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 
Each task should be correctly performed one by one without disrupting this monitoring system.

8 Check line configuration.

The team leader should give instructions to all members to check the line configuration and check it himself too, before opening the valve for cooling down the arm.

9 Arm cool down.

The watch stationed at the dome should be made to check for existence of noise, vibrations, or leaks when starting the spray pump. After confirming that no abnormality exists, the shore side should start delivery of the liquid.

When opening the valve for cooling down the arm, the shore side should recognize the flow of the LNG, first open the valve by a crack, and then open the valve gradually as instructed by the shore side worker.

Immediately after starting the cooling down operation, the manifold flanges between ship and shore should be carefully monitored as it is likely to leak because of unequal shrinkage.

Care should be taken to tighten all bolts with equal force when the flanges are tightened after a leak occurs.

To adjust the valve for Arm cool down during the cooling down operation, the person in charge of the manifold should always report to the CCR, and the CCR watch should determine the angle of opening of the said valve.

Actual example of CCR team members when starting the spray pump
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderCheck line configuration. Allow implementationConfirm procedure for starting spray pumpRe-check receipt of report
ImplementerNotify after checking line configurationStart spray pumpStart cool-down, report
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck starting timeRecord the time
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck flow at manifold, frosting condition, and leaksStatus of flow at manifold, existence of frost or leak Report
SI Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 

10 ESDS trip test (cold condition).

The 2/O should confirm before the test that the ERC safety pin has been inserted in the test position. (ESD-2 operation test (ERC disconnection) is not supposed to be carried out, but sometimes the shore side operator may perform this test by mistake).

When cold, LNG may exist in the arm, and it may spurt out when the ERC is disconnected.

11 Line configuration for discharging.

Same as (6) above. To operate the remote valve (globe valve), the reduction in hydraulic pressure of the hydro unit should be considered (ESDS action) and simultaneous operation should be limited to two valves.

Also, the operator should be fully aware that LNG exists in the piping when performing the valve operation. Particularly, when opening a double-shut valve, firstly, the valve should be opened by a crack, and then operated gradually while observing the situation.

12 Checking the line configuration.

The team leader should give instructions to all members to check the line configuration and check it himself too, before opening the double-shut valve.

13 Cargo pump start.

When starting the cargo pump, the current value and discharge pressure should be carefully monitored; the watch stationed at the dome should be made to check for the existence of noise, vibration, smoke issuing from power cables, and leaks. After confirming that no abnormality has occurred, the delivery of the liquid to the shore should be started.

After starting delivery of liquid to the shore side, check for leaks in the manifolds on both sides and in each part of the dome.

Actual example of CCR team members when starting the cargo pump
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderChecking the line configuration. Allow implementationCheck the content of communications between ship and shoreRe-check receipt of report. Check tank liquid level,
X-over temperature, and pressure changes
ImplementerChecking the line configuration. NotificationCargo pump startStart transfer of liquid, report. Check tank liquid level,
X-over temperature, and pressure changes
Recording personnelCheck line configuration using checklist. Check proceduresCheck starting timeTime recording, notice of rate increase scheduled time, communication one minute before
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck pressure change in manifold, existence of leakReport status of pressure change in manifold and existence of leak
SI Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 

14 Rate up.

Before starting delivery of liquid from each tank, confirm that checks on the status of tank pressure change, the correct operation of cargo pump, and leak checks of each part have all been completed.

After the rate is increased, the tank pressure and existence of abnormalities such as leaks should be checked from time to time. Before requesting the start of RGB, confirm that the vapor intermediate valve is fully open.

Actual example of CCR team members during rate up and start of delivery of liquid
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderExistence of abnormalities such as leaks. Allow implementationCheck the content of communications between ship and shoreRe-check receipt of report. Check tank liquid level,
X-over temperature, and pressure changes
ImplementerCheck for existence of abnormalities such as leaks. NotificationStart delivery of liquid to shore. Notify Start delivery of liquidStart delivery of liquid, report. Check tank liquid level, X-over pressure changes
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck start timeTime recording, notification of next rate increase scheduled timing, communication one minute before
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck pressure change in manifold, existence of leakReport status of pressure change in manifold and existence of leak
SI Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 

15 Full rate of discharging:

  • Should monitor information continuously. (Discharging rate, liquid level, tank pressure, line pressure, cargo pump discharge pressure, current value, etc.).
  • Monitor the condition of mooring lines, ship attitude (trim/list), and weather conditions periodically. Record events every one hour, but monitor the ship’s attitude at appropriate intervals in particular.
  • The CCR watch should concentrate on performing cargo watch (including ballast watch). (Should not perform other administrative tasks).
  • Use the discharging table from the middle stage of operations at full rate, and adjust the balance in each tank. Even if the actual tank level and the planned value differs widely when you start using the discharging table, the level in each tank may be adjusted to a value close to the value in the discharging table at the time of rate down finally, and excessive adjustments that might change the overall rate during full rate of discharging should be avoided.
  • If the level of each tank has been adjusted as planned in the discharging table at the start of rate down, the pump stoppage interval becomes ideal, and rate down work can be performed steadily and smoothly.
  • If abnormality is found, or if there is a doubt, the C/O should be notified regardless of the time.

16 Rate down.

The operator in charge of the rate down should be notified 30 minutes before the rate down, and all crewmembers should be at their respective stations 15 minutes before the rate down. The remaining level should be carefully monitored in the CCR until the level at the start of the rate down. If necessary, the CCR-TM members may be increased for backup.

During rate down, first the load of all cargo pumps should be reduced to the specified level. This is to prevent over current trip because when the cargo pump is stopped, the flow rate of other operating pumps increases and the current value increases (characteristic of electric centrifugal pumps).

Actual example of CCR team members at the time of rate down
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderStart rate down. Check level. Allow implementationCheck the content of communications between ship and shore. Rate down Check status of operationRe-check receipt of report. Check the change in
X-over pressure. Check cargo pump current value and liquid level
ImplementerStart rate down. Check level. NotificationNotify start of rate down to shore side. Adjust load in all pumpsRate down start, report. Check the change in
X-over pressure
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistCheck start time. Check status of operationTime recording, notify remaining level of each pump
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using handbookCheck manifold pressure change, pulsationsReport status of existence of manifold pressure change, pulsation
SI Status of use of discharging table. Status of implementation of load adjustments of cargo pump until the level at start of rate down. Check CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 

17 Completion of discharging work.

After adjusting the loads of all pumps, instructions should be given to stop the pump at the cargo pump stop level of each tank.

Care is required at this stage to check the level of all tanks. The person in charge of recording the level should notify at the appropriate timings the remaining level until the pump stoppage for each tank.

Depending on the characteristics of the cargo pump (electric centrifugal pump), if the back pressure reduces, the volume discharged may increase, leading to a rise in the electric current. Therefore, after stopping each pump, the load of the remaining running pumps should be adjusted.

18 CTMS after discharging after discharging.

As with CTMS before discharging, check:

  • name of ship,
  • date,
  • time,
  • port,
  • cargo no.,
  • chief officer’s name, and other such essential items.

In addition, follow operation procedures and the check operating status of the measurement system on the CRT (on the CTMS screen), for example:

  • level,
  • volume,
  • temperature,
  • appropriate decimal place and unit, and so on.

During measurement, collate input settings with a shore measurement attendant.

Preparation of Cargo Documents

1 Documents should be submitted to the company, charterers, parties concerned in the project, and terminals:

  • Notice of readiness.
  • Port log/sea log.
  • Ship/shore safety checklist.
  • CTM calculation sheet.
  • Sea log.
  • Other documents required from the project.

2 Handling Procedure of Cargo Documents.

Prepare the list of documents to be submitted, and decide both the person in charge of handling and the person in charge of the final check of each document. Each cargo document should be signed by the person in charge of the final check.

Actual example of CCR team members at completion of discharging
Person in chargeBefore implementationImplementationAfter implementation
Team leaderCheck pump stoppage level. Allow implementationCheck the content of communications between ship and shore. Check status of pump stoppage operationRe-check receipt of report. Check the change in
X-over pressure. Check cargo pump current value and liquid level
ImplementerCheck pump stoppage level. NotificationPump stoppage operationPump stop, report. Check that the discharge valve is closed
Recording personnelCheck procedure using checklistConfirm pump stoppage operation. Confirm stoppage timeTime recording, notification of remaining level until next pump stoppage
Person in charge of the manifoldCheck procedure using checklistCheck manifold pressure change, pulsationsReport status of existence of manifold pressure change, pulsation
SICheck CCR-TM functions, team work (double check, continuous monitoring), communications between ship and shore, marine concept, and calling out aloud the instructions and re-confirming the actions

 
Generally, a situation where several pumps are stopped almost at the same time never occurs, but if by chance, such a situation does occur, the team leader should station backup personnel or perform the pump stoppage operation himself.

Review of cargo handling work

De-briefing. After the cargo handling work is completed, a de-briefing should be held as early as possible to discuss the abnormalities that occurred during the cargo operation and the improvements to be made. If de-briefing is to be held immediately after the cargo handling work, the SI should also participate if possible.

De-briefing of the following items should be held for improving the cargo handling work:

  • List out the abnormalities that occurred during cargo work, the improvements to be made and the measures to be taken.
  • Review the cargo handling checklist.
  • Identify the abnormalities and the points where the CCR-TM functioned satisfactorily.
  • Reconsider actions of team members in CCR-TM.
  • List out points of improvement in skills and abilities of team members.

If the cargo handling checklist is revised, send the latest version of the list to the Company.

If the checklist is divided into a time sheet and procedure, send both to the Company.

Feedback. CCR-TM is a safe cargo handling work method, and also has functions of QC activities on board the ship.

In the P-D-C-A cycle, if the preparation beforehand is Plan, implementation of cargo handling work is do, the de-briefing after the cargo handling work is Check, then the feedback corresponds to Action. By skillfully cycling through P-D-C-A, continual improvements can be made to cargo handling work on board the ship.

To continually improve individual skills and cargo handling work, the problems raised in the de-briefing as feedback, and the measures to be made for improvements should be implemented as Action Plan for the next cargo handling operation.

On the other hand, training and education should be imparted through OJT for team members whose skills need to be enhanced, when required.

Case studies. Measures to prevent recurrence of problems should be confirmed referring to instances of problems that have occurred in the past.

It can be inferred from the instances that problems arise as a result of a chain of errors, which can be caused by almost anybody.

We can know how to perform work and what precautions to adopt by carrying out case studies. These are a few points, but there are other points too as mentioned above.

By judging whether the analysis of risks, identification/evaluation of risks, existing Safety, Risks and Security Aspects in Liquefied Natural Gas Industrymeasures for mitigating risks, or whether operating procedures are appropriate, practical and valuable results can be anticipated.

General

The objective of CCR Team Management (hereafter CCR-TM) is to eliminate problems during cargo handling work due to human error on board the ship, and its concept is as given below:

  1. Checks by several persons for each task.
  2. Continuous monitoring by team members.

Comprehensive action guidelines in CCR-TM. Comprehensive action guidelines in CCR-TM are shown in fig. 5.

The guidelines in CCR
Fig. 5 Comprehensive action guidelines in CCR Team Management

Future topics

Evaluation of Cargo Operation Plan. It is important for personnel monitoring various cargo operations to be fully aware of the risks involved in each operation. This entails identifying and evaluating potential risks in each work and collecting all kinds of associated information.

By identifying/evaluating risks and performing risk analysis, by judging correctly whether the existing measures for mitigating risks are appropriate, measures that are more suitable can be anticipated.

QC activities on board the ship. The CCR Team management makes use of the P-D-C-A cycle consisting of:

  • preparations beforehand (Plan);
  • cargo handling work (Do);
  • completion of cargo operation (Check);
  • feedback (Action),

as shown above in fig. 5.

On board the ship, it is important to go through the P-D-C-A cycle skillfully, and make efforts for continuous improvements to cargo handling work (including the upgrading of individual abilities and enhancing skills through OJT).

Stability progress of CCR-TM. CCR-TM is in the process being introduced in each ship. It is necessary to introduce and spread the comprehensive action guidelines, and at the same time, to review the content.

The Company should collect opinions and review the problems of each ship with regard to CCR-TM, offer feedback to each ship, and make rapid progress with CCR-TM henceforth.

Author
Author photo - Olga Nesvetailova
Freelancer
Literature
  1. Quality Control of Cargo Handling Work in LNG Carriers. Second Version. June 1, 2007.
  2. American Gas Association, Gas Supply Review, 5 (February 1977).
  3. CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. Design of LPG and LNG Jetties with Navigation and Risk Analysis / 4th Edition.
  4. American Gas Association, Gas Supply Review, 5 (February 1977).
  5. Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, Liquefied Natural Gas, Views and Practices Policy and Safety, p. IV-3.
  6. Department of Transportation, US Coast Guard, Liquefied Natural Gas, Views and Practices Policy and Safety, p. IV-4.
  7. Federal Power commission, Trunkline LNG Company et al., Opinion No. 796-A, Docket No s. CP74-138-140 (Washington, D. C.: Federal Power Commission, June 30, 1977).
  8. Federal Power Commission, Final Environmental Impact Statement Calcasieu LNG Project Trunkline LNG Company Docket No. CP74-138 et al., (Washington, D. C.: Federal Power Commission, September 1976).
  9. Federal Power Commission, «FPC Judge Approves Importation of Indonesia LNG».
  10. Federal Power Commission, «Table of LNG imports and exports for 1976», News Release, June 3, 1977, and Federal Energy Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 1977.
  11. Office of Technology Assessment LNG panel meeting, Washington, D. C., June 23, 1977.
  12. Socio-Economic Systems, Inc., Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Oxnard LNG Facilities, Safety, Appendix B (Los Angeles, Ca.: Socio-Economic Systems, 1976).
  13. «LNG Scorecard», Pipeline and Gas Journal 203 (June 1976): 20.
  14. Dean Hale, «Cold Winter Spurs LNG Activity»: 30.

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